Flashcards in Pharm 1 final Deck (108):
The OFFICIAL name is the name under which a drug is listed by which government agency?
FDA food drug administration
Why is Meperidine considered a class 2 narcotic medication?
Its high potential for physical and psychological dependency
What do prescription drugs require?
Physicians to write an order for the medication and require PCP oversight
What schedule 5 drug has low potential for abuse?
What schedule narcotics have the greatest risk for abuse?
Schedule 2 of the prescribe-able medications
Whats the priority for a patient that started a new med and develops hives?
Stop med and notify PCP of allergic reaction
Whats the patient teaching for new meds and Allergic reactions?
tell pt to stop taking meds and potentially wear medical alert bracelet
Drug interactions occur when one drug ____ the effect of another drug
Drug ___ __ indicate the amount of a drug in the body and whether its at a ______
1. Blood levels 2. Therapeutic range
The half life of a drug is the amount of time it takes 1/2 of the drug to be eliminated from the body
Ex: If a nurse administers 100mg of a drug at 0600 and the half life of the drug is 6 hrs, then at 1200 50mg of the drug will have been eliminated from the body
Name a responsibility of the nurse when administering meds?
Check for drug compatibility
Among other components such as age, what else can effect metabolism of medication?
A history of liver disease can effect metabolism of medication
Antacids such as aluminum shouldn't be given with what medication because of absorption interference?
Mylanta, Most medication require a minimum of 1 hr between the medication and the antacids
Physicians orders are where the PCP gives what information?
Directions for procedures and treatments for patients
If narcotic count is found to be incorrect while obtaining a med from the narcotic area who should the staff nurse notify?
The supervisor immediately
When will you make an incident report?
When a med error was found to have been made on a previous shift
If the PCP orders are unclear what should the nurse do?
Contact PCP for clarification
What route is the fastest medication administration method?
Intravenous is the fastest route for onset but it also poses the greatest risk of adverse effects
When taking oral medication what position should patient be in?
Full Fowlers or upright
What position should patient be in when receiving enteral feeding?
Semi fowlers (no less than 30 degrees)
How should left over medication be disposed of?
Per FDA guidelines dispose per the drug manufacturers specific instructions
The best place to apply Nitroglycerin ointment?
An area with little or no hair, such as the upper chest , upper back, or upper arm
Should gloves be used when handling topical medications and if so with which topical especially?
yes gloves and Nitroglycerin especially
When applying a patch such as nitroglycerin or fentanyl patch what information should be labeled?
Date Time dosage and initals
Ophtalmic medications need to be and remain ___
Where should Ophthalmic be administered?
Lower conjunctival sac
Why is pressure held to the inner canthus of the eye after instilling eye drops ?
To prevent systemic absorption
Over use of nasal spray can result in __ effect
When administering ear drops for a child how will the nurse pull the earlobe?
Downwards and back
what are the teaching for corticosteroids inhalers?
1.Shake the inhaler prior to use
What kind of lubricant should be used when administering a rectal suppository?
A water base lubricant NO petroleum based products
Why are rectal medications given?
Because they bypass digestive enzymes
Before administering meds the first step upon arrival is?
Identify the patient
The patient starting Terbutaline should know what effects will resolve after continued therapy?
What are Alpha -adrenergic blocking agents used for?
Peripheral vascular diseases characterized by excessive vasoconstriction, such as Raynauds disease
Why are Beta-Blockers used cautiously in patients with respiratory conditions such as emphysema?
Because they may produce severe bronchoconstriction
What are Anticholinergic medications used to treat?
Parkinsons disease because they inhibit the action of acetylcholine
What should patients be screened for before starting Anticholinergic drug therapy?
Closed angle glaucoma
Before receiving the Beta adrenergic blocking agent Metoprolol what should be assessed?
Blood pressure should be assessed
In the patient receiving Atenolol a beta adrenergic blocking agent who has a pulse rate less than 60 and peripheral edema should the nurse hold the medication ?
yes pulse is too low drug would further lower it bc of beta adrenergic effect
Patient receiving an adrenergic medication should be taught to move slowly from standing to sitting if they feel ___ and __
If inspiratory and expiratory wheezing were noted while taking a cholernergic agent what precautions would the nurse take?
Hold the meds and contact PCP
A patient takes a hypnotic to help them sleep and decrease anxiety cannot sleep and becomes excited, what is happening?
Paradoxial effect, when oppsite affect than the one desired
What test would be ordered for a patient receiving diazepam/valium complaining of nausea and vomitting and is becoming jaundiced?
Liver function test
In addition to facilitating sleep by increasing relaxation what else do Sedatives do?
Decrease patients anxiety
Orthostatic hypotension is a potential adverse affect of _____
Benzodiazepines such as Lorazepam/Ativan
Whats the length of time the Antihistamine, diphenhydramine should be taken?
One week when taking for insomnia
A drug interaction of warfarin potentiation can occur if taken with chloral hydrate so what should a nurse monitor?
Patients prothrombin time will be monitored
What potential adverse effect would you watch for with a patient taking Levadopa therapy that sustained an injury?
Anticholinergic drugs reduce the cholinergic system of Parkinsons disease such as ____ and ____
Tremors and Drooling
What are the pharmacological action of entacapone, a COMT?
That it decreases the destruction of dopamine in peripheral tissues
How is the dosage of the COMT medication entacapone adjusted?
According to the patients response
When should reduction in dosage of the COMT medication entacapone occur?
Necessary if dizziness results when given in combination with an antihypertensive and aspirin
True or false Levapoda can be taken with food to reduce GI disturbance
Why is Levodopa given instead of dopamine in treatment with Parkinson's?
Dopamine does not cross the blood brain barrier when administered orally
What is an adverse effect of Dopamine agonist in the treatment of Parkinsons disease?
Sudden sleep events
What foods should be avoided when taking MAOIs?
Tyramine food such as aged cheese , wines, cured meats
True or false Antianxiety medication shouldnt be stopped immediately but SHOULD be tappered over 1 month
The antidepressant medication azapirone can cause drowsiness, what is a patient teaching for this med?
Include the potential risk of injury when using heavy machinery
The patient taking alprazolam / Xanaz should be instructed to lie down if they feel dizzy when ____ to a standing position
What 3 formulations is Lorazapam available in?
Oral Intramuscular Intavenous
What is the benefit of selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)?
They do not cause anticholinergic or cardiovascular adverse effects like other antidepressants
What is considered when taking prescribed Tricyclic Antidepressants?
Patients age and gender
After starting medication to treat depression when will Physiological symptoms improve?
Within 1 week
What is a patient assessed for when diagnosed with mood disorder?
MAOI's block the destruction of neurotransmitters so they remain available for utilization true or false
MAOI's therapy should be discontinued how many weeks prior to starting on other mood disorder medication
What is a common adverse affect of Trazadone?
When bupropion/ Wellbutrin is prescribed for smoking cessation, patient teaching should include;
1. Doasge will be increased after 3 days 2. medication is to swallowed whole 3. Only take the prescribed amount 4. Meds do not need to be tapered when discontinued
What is an adverse effect of Hydantoin/ Dilantin therapy?
What is a severe adverse effect of Hydantoin/ Dilantin therapy?
History of diabetes mellitus is hyperglycemia
In addition to treating seizures disorders, Carbamazepine/ Tegretol is used for what else?
It is also used to treat Trigeminal neuralgia pain
What is The drug of choice for treating generalized tonic clonic seizures
Valproic acid / Depakene
What is an adverse effects that usually resolves but should be reported to the PCP for the patient taking Lamotrigine/ Lamictal
Complaints of a rash and Urticaria
In addition to being used for seizure control topiramate/ Topamax is also used for?
Preventively for migraine headaches
Patient ancestery is part of the assessment prior to starting Carbamazepine / Tegretol therapy true or false?
What is an assessment tool used to evaluate pain in the nonverbal adult patient?
What is in nursing intervention for the patient receiving an opoid such as morphine who has a respiratory rate less than 10
Notify PCP and prepare to administer Noxalone/ Narcan
What is an indication of salicylate toxicity?
True or false COX2 inhibitors cause fewer adverse effect than other NSAIDs
True or false Acetaminophen/ Tylenol does not have an anti-inflammatory effect
The effectiveness of analgesics medications is done _____ after administration
Aspirin is contraindicated with the patient receiving warfarin/ Coumadin related to increase risk for bleeding
Verbalizing pain on a scale from ____ is the best way for the nurse to evaluate the effectiveness of pain medication
0 to 10
When is Opiate agonist such as morphine/ Roxanol given?
For severe acute pain
Patient teaching should include encouraging patients to ___ pain before the pain becomes too ___
1. Report. 2. Severe
Intermittent doses of breakthrough pain medication may be ordered/ administered to the patient who has a ______ patch
Urinary antimicrobial agents, such as ciprofloxacin/ Cipro are administered to provide an ______ on the tribe and urinary tract
Phenazopyridine hydrochloride/ Pyridium will turn the urine what color?
Reddish orange and it can discolor the sclera as well
Fosfomycin / Monurol is administered when and with what?
One time dose in 90-120 ml of water
What is Tolterodine/ Detrolb used to decrease?
The urge to void for patients with urinary urgency
Extreme dilation of pupils is a result of ____
An Adrenergic Ophthalmic solution discharge should include what information?
That driving should be avoided until blurring subsides
Timolol maleate/ Timoptic ( a beta adrenergic blocking agent) works by decreasing the production of _________
Patients who are allergic to PCN/ penicillin can potentially be allergic to ______ as well
Probenecid given with ____ inhibits the excretion of penicillins increasing its bioavailability
What is a severe adverse effect associated with aminoglycosides?
How are antimicrobials chose?
Based on the sensitivity of the microorganisms to the drug
Secondary infections such as candida or thrush are potential issues with ATB therapy especially ________
Broad Spectrum antimicrobials
Nephrotoxicity is a potential _____ effect related to therapy with gentamicin and cephalosporins, especially in conjunction with diuretics
When administering adult ear drops will pull the earlobe ____ and ____
Psychological symptoms of depression will improve within in?
in buccal cavity (cheek and molar teeth)
7 rights of medication admin
1. RIGHT patient 2.RIGHT drug 3.RIGHT indication 4. RIGHT ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION 5. RIGHT DOSE 6. RIGHT time of administration 7. RIGHT documentation
Directly into gastrointestinal tract oral, rectal, or nasogastric
Bypass the GI tract with the use of subcutaneous, intamuscular, and intravenous injection