Pharm 3 Topical Agents pt3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm 3 Topical Agents pt3 Deck (23)
1

5 categories of Cutaneous Preparations

Steroids
Topical antibiotics
Topical antifungals
Scabicides/pediculides
Topical acne preparations

2

Creams
Base, color, versatility, misc

Mixture of organic oils & water
WHITE, somewhat greasy
Most frequently Rx’d base used on nearly every body surface, esp. useful in intertriginous areas
COSMETICALLY more acceptable; can be drying after prolonged use

3

Ointments
Color, versatility, misc

Translucent, greasy feeling persists
Greater penetration, useful for dryer lesions, enhanced potency
Too occlusive for acute exudative eczematous inflammation

4

Gels
Base, color, misc

Greaseless mixtures of propylene glycol, water, alcohol
Clear w/ a jellylike consistency
Unpleasant, sticky feeling, may be irritating
Alcohol gel feels cool and are drying, useful in acute exudative inflammation (I.e., poison ivy)

5

Solutoins & Lotions
Versatility, Misc

Most useful for scalp because it penetrates the hair shaft
May be drying and irritating when used in intertriginous areas

6

Aerosols are only applied when?

Aerosols are only applied if the patient cannot reach where it must be applied.

7

List the 5 topical preparations from lowest to greatest frequency of application.

Ointments, Gels, Creams, Solutions & Lotions, Aerosols

8

Topical Corticosteroids
Example
Indication
What does it do?

Example: triamcinolone acetonide (Aristocort)
Indicated in corticosteroid-responsive inflammatory and pruritic dermatoses such as psoriasis, eczema, contact dermatitis
Anti-inflammatory effects are produced through vasconstriction of the small vessels in the upper dermis (causes thinning of the skin)

9

Topical corticosteroids have the same pharmacologic effects as:

systemic steroids

10

There are numerous topical coticosteroids available
__ is the most important variable in selecting a topical corticosteroid.
The potency is not determined by its strength but rather by __

Potency; Vasoconstrictor assays

11

The dose of one steroid dose not correlate with the dose of another
T/F?

True

12

Group _ corticosteroids are the most potent and Group _ are the least potent

Group I corticosteroids are the most potent and Group VII are the least potent

13

Rank these by potency (most to least). What are these?
Betamethasone
Hydrocortisone
Triamcinolone

These are Topical steroids.
Betamethasone
Triamcinolone
Hydrocortisone

14

The most common complication of topical steroids is:

suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

15

7 topical antibiotics. (first 2 are most common)

Bacitracin (Bacitracin)
Neomycin sulfate (Neomycin)
Erythromycin (Erygel)
Gentamycin (Gentamicin)
Polymyxin B sulfate (Polymyxin)
Mupirocin (Bactroban)
Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene)

16

Bacitracin ointment (Bacitracin)
What is it?
Indication
Caveats

a Common topical antibiotic
To prevent an infection. Indicated for prophylaxis of infection in minor wounds, burns and skin abrasions and to aid in healing of susceptible organisms especially streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci and other gram-positive organisms
Poorly absorbed and allergic sensitivity is rare

17

Best tx for a wound is:

irrigation

18

Mupirocin (Bactroban)
What is it?
Indication

a Common Topical Antibiotics
Indicated for localized treatment of IMPETIGO caused by S. aureus (including MRSA and -lactamase producing strains), S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, -hemolytic streptococci, S. pyogenes
Mechanism of action is thru the blocking of protein synthesis of bacteria by binding with the transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase

19

What's the antibiotic to treat impetigo?

Mupirocin (Bactroban)

20

Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene)
What is it?
Indication
Precautions

a common topical antibiotic.
Indicated for 2º and 3º burns of the skin
Precautions: may permanently stain some skin, esp on face/hands

21

If someone have a burn on their forearm what drug is used?
What if it's a burn on the face/hands?

Forearm: Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene)
Face/hands: Bacitracin

22

Prototypical Topical Antifungal
Example
Indication

Example: Clotrimazole
Indication: treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea versacolor caused by M. furfur, and candidiasis caused by C albicans

23

___ determines how long we treat with an antifungal.

Where the infection is.