PHARM: Cough Suppressants, Decongestants, Mucolytics Flashcards Preview

Pulmonary > PHARM: Cough Suppressants, Decongestants, Mucolytics > Flashcards

Flashcards in PHARM: Cough Suppressants, Decongestants, Mucolytics Deck (73):
1

How many phases are there of a cough?

3: Inspiratory phase, compressive phase, expulsive phase

2

Describe the 3 phases of a cough.

1) Inspiratory effort
2) Forced expiratory effort against a closed glottis
3) Opening of the glottis and rapid expiratory airflow

3

Where are cough receptors located?

airway bifurcations in the larynx and distal esophagus

4

Though what nerves to cough afferents link to the cough center/cerebral cortex?

vagus and superior laryngeal nerves

5

True or false: afferent pathways control the muscle response that leads to cough.

FALSE: efferent pathways do

6

What type of cough lasts less than three weeks?

acute

7

What type of cough lasts three to eight weeks?

subacute

8

What type of cough lasts greater than 8 weeks?

chronic

9

Malodorous secretions with cough indicate what type of infection?

anaerobic

10

What is an antitussive?

drug to prevent (nonproductive) cough

11

Antitussives are divided into what two groups?

Systemic
Topical

12

List some systemic antitussives.

Dextromethorphan
Diphenhydramine
Codeine

13

List some topical antitussives.

Camphor
Menthol

14

What is an expectorant?

drug to help productive coughs (with thick secretions) bring up mucus

15

What is an example of an expectorant?

Guaifenesin

16

What is the MOA of dextromethorphan?

Supresses the cough reflex by a direct action on the cough center int he medulla of the brain

17

How is dextromethorphan metabolized?

CYP2D6 into its active metabolite (dextrorphan)

18

What are the side effects of dextromethorphan?

Dizziness, drowsiness, N/V, diarrhea, excitability, trouble sleeping; HALLUCINOGENIC (pseudobulbar effect)

19

Dextromethorphan is contraindicated in what individuals?

those on MAOI antidepressants****
those who have advanced respiratory insufficiency, hepatic disease, or hypersensitivity

20

What is diphenhydramine?

Benadryl

21

What type of drug is diphenhydramine?

Antihistamine-H1 receptor antagonist

22

What is the MOA of diphenhydramine?

Supresses cough reflex by direct effect on cough center and due to its anticholinergic effects

23

What are some side effects of diphenhydramine?

Drowsiness
Respiratory depression
blurred vision
Urinary retention
constipation

24

In what patients is diphenhydramine contraindicated?

Prostate hypertrophy
urinary obstruction
asthma
COPD
peptic ulcers
MAOI takers

25

What type of drug is codeine?

opioid analgesic and antitussive (related to morphine but has lower affinity for mu receptors)

26

How does codeine depress the cough reflex?

direct action on cough center in CNS

27

What are some side effects of codeine?

constipation
sedation
histamine release
vasodilation
orthostatic hypotension
dizziness

28

In what people is codeine contraindicated?

hypersensitivity
Pregnant women
Prostatic hypertrophy patients
Individuals on sedatives
People with asthma, OCPD, or ARD

29

Topical agents can come in what forms?

Ointments (to rub on throat)
Lozenges
Inhalation (breathe in medicated vapors)

30

What does guaifenesin do?

loosens and thins lower respiratory tract secretions by increasing the volume and reducing the viscosity of secretions

(used in goat sedation)

31

What are side effects of guaifenesin?

Dizziness
Dry mough
rash
Diarrhea
Uric acid nephrolithiasis* (in large doses)

32

What are nasal decongestants?

vasoconstrictive drugs that reduce nasal congestion without affecting release of histamine/other mediators of allergic reaction (so commonly formulated with antihistamines)

33

What is the MOA of nasal decongestants?

alpha-adrenergic agonist that stimulates blood vessels to constrict to reduce blood supply to nose and sinusoid vessels (decreasing mucosal edema

34

List some oral (systemic) decongestants.

Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
Phenylephrine (Sudafed PE)

35

What is the difference between pseudoepherine and phenylephrine?

Pseudoephedrine releases NE from adrenergic nerves while phenylephrine directly stimulates adrenergic receptors on post-synaptic sites

36

Which has a greater bioavailability: pseudoepherine and phenylephrine??

pseudoephedrine (only minorly metabolized--around 100% bioavailability compared to 38%)

37

List some side effects of systemic decongestants.

CV stimulation
CNS stimulation
more likely experienced by children and elderly
Rebound congestion (ischemic as result of local vasoconstriciton of drug or local irritation of drug)

38

Why is pseudoephedrine a behind the counter OTC?

Meth Check monitors it

39

List the types of topical nasal decongestants.

Sprays
Drops
Inhalers

40

What is an example of a decongestant spray? When is this preferred?

oxymetazoline (alpha 1 agonist preferred for pregnancy)

41

Why should you not use oxymetazoline over 3-5 days?

can cause rhinitis medicamentosa

42

List medications used in decongestant inhalers.

Levamfetamine
Propylhexadrine (acts on alpha receptors and indirectly increases NE release)

43

What are mucolytics?

drugs that promote the breakdown of mucus in diseases like CF, COPD, Bronchiectasis, and Respiratory Infections

44

What is the structure of mucus?

Large macromolecule made up of polypeptide backbone with carbohydrate side chains (held together by dipeptide links (connect AA) and disulfide/hydrogen bonds (connect adjacent macromolecules))

45

List ways to facilitate the clearance of mucus.

-Provide adequate hydration
-Remove causative factors
-Optimize tracheobronchial clearance
-Reduce inflammation

46

What is a bland aerosol?

a "wetting agent" that dilutes mucus

47

List examples of bland aerosols.

-Sterile and distilled water
-Normal saline
-Hypertonic saline (increase mucus production)
-Hypotonic saline

48

List examples of expectorants that act as mucolytics.

Iodides
Guiafenesin (stimulates bronchial gland secretion at high doses)
Bromohexin (increases production of serous mucus in respiratory tract and decreases the viscosity of phlegm)

49

List a commonly used mucolytic.

N-Acetly Cysteine

50

How does N-acetyl cysteine work?

breaks the bonds of mucus by substituting a sulfhydryl radical -HS

51

How is N-acetyl administered?

aerosol or directly into ET tube

52

What is a side effect of mucolytics?

Bronchospasm (watch out with asthma)
Increased mucus production (bad for people without ability to cough or who are intubated)
BAD ODOR
Easily contaminated

53

Can you mix a mucolytic and an antibiotic in the same nebulizer?

NO- incompatible

54

How does sodium bicarbonate act like a mucolytic?

increases the pH of mucus by weakening the carbohydrate side chain--> which weakens the polysaccharide chains

55

How can you administer sodium bicarbonate?

injection into trachea or aerosolized (but irritating)

56

What is dornase alfa?

clone of the natural human pancreatic DNase enzyme which digests extracellular DNA that reduces the viscosity of secretions during infection

57

Who uses dornase alfa?

cystic fibrosis patients or patients with chronic bronchitis/bronchiectasis

*has NO effect on non-infected sputum

58

What are side effects of dornase alfa?

voice alteration
conjunctivitis*
chest pain

59

Who cannot take dornase alfa?

patients hypersensitive to Chinese Hamster Ovary cell products

60

What is amiloride?

diuretic that can be given by aerosol to block sodium channels in the epithelium (preventing the dehydration of mucus)--sodium is not allowed to go in to epithelium with water like in CF

61

What is another CF drug that enhances mucosal hydration by activating Cl-secretion and inhibiting Na+ transport across the epithelium?

Denufosol Tetrasodium

62

How does denufosol tetrasodium work?

activates P2Y2 receptors

63

How do laryngeal and pulmonary receptors (ex. C-fibers) relay input to brainstem medually central cough generator?

via intermediate relay neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius

64

Which receptors in the larynx respond to cold (menthol)?

TRPV-8

65

What receptors in the larynx respond to stretch?

slow adapting fibers

66

What receptors in the larynx respond to pH changes and irritants?

C-fibers

67

What types of receptors are the "cough receptors"?

G-protein coupled ion channels

68

What type of innervation do blood vessels NOT get?

parasympathetic

69

What type of innervation do mucous glands NOT get?

sympathetic

70

What type of molecules are released from synapses at the nasal epithelium to vasodilate and increase vascular permeability leading to congestion?

Neuropeptides (ex. neurokinin A, CGRP)

71

Which decongestant is a selective alpha-1 agonist?

phenylephrine

72

How does phenylephrine cause reflex bradycardia?

Vasoconstriction leads to baroreflex that increases Ach and decreases NE release--> slows heart

73

Why does rebound congestion occur with decongestants like PE?

if you use for over 7 days, receptors get desensitized and you get infection (if no blood flow to area, no way to fight infectious particles off!)