Pharm Derm part I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm Derm part I Deck (47)
1

what are the topical antibiotics used for acne

clindamycin
erythromycin
metronidazole

2

what are the topical antifungals

azoles
ciclopirox olamine
allylamines- terbinagine (lamisil)
butenafine
folnaftate
nystatin and amphotericin B

3

what are the oral antifungals

azoles- ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole

4

what are the topical antiviral agents

acyclovir, penciclovir, docosanol

5

what are the immunomodulators used for derm

imiquimod
tacrolimus and pimecrolimus

6

what are the specific acne preparations

retinoic acid and derivatives: retinoic acid, adapalene, tazarotene
isotretinoion (accutane)
benzoyls peroxide

7

what are the drugs used for psoriasis

acitretin, tazarotene, calcipotriene, cyclosprine
TNF inhbitors: etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab

8

what are the anti inflammatory agents used for derm

topical steroids: hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone valerate, triamcinolone, acetonide, betamethasone, others

9

what are the keratolytic and destructive agents used in derm

salicylic acid
fluorouracil

10

what drugs do we use for antipruritic

antihistamine

11

what drugs do we use for trichogenic and antitrichogenic

minoxidil(rogaine)
finasteride (propecia)

12

which layer of skin limits diffusion of compunds

stratum corneum

13

what areas of body are more permeable than the forearm

scrotum, face, axilla and scalp

14

what factor helps increase the amount of drug transfered through skin

increased [ ] will increase the [ ] gradient so more transferred

15

what allows for the once daily application of topical drugs

skin acts as reservoir for many drugs

16

what is an occlusive dressing

application of plastic wrap-- holds drug in close contact with skin

17

3 routes which molecules can penetrate skin

intact stratum corneum (rate limit is percutaneous absorption)
sweat ducts
sebaceous follicles

18

steps for percutaneous absorption

make [ ] gradient (force for drug movement across skin)
partition coefficient: release of drug from vehicle
diffusion coefficient: drug diffusion across layers of skin

19

what are factors for rate of absorption

[ ] drug in vehicle, partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient, thickness of stratum corneum

20

preferable characteristics of topical drugs

low molecular mass
adequate solubility in oils/lipids and water
high lipid: water partition coefficient

21

what particles do not cross stratum corneum

water soluble ions and polar molecules

22

what are the vehicles used for topical medications in order of most to least ability to retard evaporation from surface skin

ointments, creams, paste, powders, aerosols, gels, lotions, wet dressings, tinctures

23

best vehicle for acute inflammation with oozing, vesiculation and crusting

drying preparations: tinctures, wet dressings and lotions

24

best vehicle for chronic inflammation with xerosis, scaling and lichenification

creams and ointments

25

transdermal patches are used for what

contraception, smoking cessation, hormone therapy, osteoporosis, hypogonadism, pain relief, motion sickness, local anesthesia and angina pectoris

26

methods to hydrate skin so drug absorbed more

occlusion with impermeable film, application of lipophilic occlusive vehicles like ointments and soaking dry skin before occlusion

27

difference of age when giving topical medications

children have greater SA than to mass ratio. so more systemic effects. decrease dose

28

what is intralesional administration and what is main reason not to use it

direct contact of drug with underlying pathologic process. eliminates first pass
watch out for systemic absorption

29

when do you use systemic administration of derm agents

systemic infections, yeast, fungus, bacteria or severe dermatological illness

30

MOA bactitracin and gramicidin

inhibit cell wall synthesis, bind phospholipids and increase permeability of cell wall

31

spectrum bacitracin and gramicidin

gram + and anaerobic cocci: neisseria, tetanus bacilli and diphteria bacilli

32

MOA mupirocin

inhbiits protein synthesis

33

spectrum mupirocin

gram + aerobic bacteria and MRSA
allowed for Tx impetigo

34

MOA polymyxin B sulfate

binds phospholipids and increases permeability of cell wall membrane

35

spectrum polymyxin B sulfate

gram - organisms: P aeruginosa, E coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella

36

Polymyxin B sulfate toxicity

neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity

37

MOA neomycin and gentamicin

irreversibly binds 30S subunit and inhibits protein synthesis

38

spectrum neomycin and genta

gram -
E coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus,
genta:
P aeruginosa, staphylococcie, group A beta-hemolytic strep

39

toxicity with neomycin and gentamicin

nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity if have renal failure since excreted primarily in urine

40

MOA clindamycin

inhibits protein synthesis binds 50S
works against P acnes

41

MOA erythromycin

inhibits protein synthesis. binds 50S

42

complications of using erythromycin for acne

R to staphylococci, need to discontinue and start systemic

43

MOA metronidazole

interacts with DNA resulting in strand breakage, anti inglammatory effects

44

uses of metronidazole for acne

acne rosacea

45

CI to metronidazole use for acne

during pregnancy or nursing because carcinogenic nature

46

MOA Na sulfacetamide

inhibit P acnes thorugh competetive inhibition and inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis

47

CI Na sulfacetamide for acne

sensitivity to sulfonamides