Pharm: Glaucoma Drugs Flashcards Preview

Clinical Neuro Exam 1 > Pharm: Glaucoma Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm: Glaucoma Drugs Deck (18):
1

Which is the only drug class that can treat closed angle glaucoma?

Cholinergic Agents

2

Carbachol

Treats Open Angle Glaucoma: causes contraction of the ciliary muscles leading to increase flow through the intertrabecular spaces.

Treats Closed angle glaucoma: causes contraction of the sphincter pupillae muscle to increase the angle between the iris and sclera for aqueous drainage.

MOA: direct-acting muscarinic agonist

Side Effects: autonomic disturbances if it gets into the systemic circulation (also has nicotinic activity)

3

Pilocarpine

Treats Open Angle Glaucoma: causes contraction of the ciliary muscles leading to increase flow through the intertrabecular spaces.

Treats Closed angle glaucoma: causes contraction of the sphincter pupillae muscle to increase the angle between the iris and sclera for aqueous drainage.

MOA: direct-acting muscarinic agonist

Side Effects: causes paradoxical hypertension and tachycardia

4

Physostigmine

Treats Open Angle Glaucoma: causes contraction of the ciliary muscles leading to increase flow through the intertrabecular spaces.

Treats Closed angle glaucoma: causes contraction of the sphincter pupillae muscle to increase the angle between the iris and sclera for aqueous drainage.

MOA: AChase inhibitor

Side Effects: crosses BBB and cause seizures and abnormal defecation

5

Ecothiphate

Treats Open Angle Glaucoma: causes contraction of the ciliary muscles leading to increase flow through the intertrabecular spaces.

Treats Closed angle glaucoma: causes contraction of the sphincter pupillae muscle to increase the angle between the iris and sclera for aqueous drainage.

MOA: AChase inhibitor

Side Effects: nightblindness and frontal headaches

6

Betaxolol

Treats open angle glaucoma by inhibiting ciliary epithelium from producing aqueous humor.

Also treats ocular hypertension

MOA: SELECTIVE BETA-1 blocker (fewer side effects)

Side Effects: AV block, myocardial infarct

7

Carteolol

Treats open angle glaucoma by inhibiting ciliary epithelium from producing aqueous humor.

Also treats ocular hypertension

MOA: non-selective Beta blocker

Side Effects: insomnia, bronchospasm

8

Timolol

Treats open angle glaucoma by inhibiting ciliary epithelium from producing aqueous humor.

Also treats ocular hypertension

MOA: non-selective Beta blocker

SIde Effects: bradycardia, blurred vision, confusion, hallucination

9

Latanoprost

Treats open angle glaucoma by increasing uveoscleral drainage of aqueous humor.

Treats intraocular hypertension

MOA: PGF2-alpha analog

Side Effects: Darkens the color of the iris, macular retinal edema.

10

Brimatoprost

Treats open angle glaucoma by increasing trabecular meshwork drainage of aqueous humor.

Treats intraocular hypertension

MOA: PGF2-alpha analog

Side Effects: Darkens the color of the iris, macular retinal edema, conjunctival hyperemia

11

Travoprost

Treats open angle glaucoma by increasing trabecular meshwork drainage of aqueous humor.

Treats intraocular hypertension

MOA: PGF2-alpha analog

Side Effects: Darkens the color of the iris, macular retinal edema, conjunctival hyperemia

12

Acetazolamide

Treats open angle glaucoma by inhibiting production of bicarbonate ions which ultimately inhibits aqueous humor production.

Also treats intraocular hypertension.

MOA: carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor

Side Effects: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperchloremic acidosis, kidney stones

13

Dorzolamide

Treats open angle glaucoma by inhibiting production of bicarbonate ions which ultimately inhibits aqueous humor production.

Also treats intraocular hypertension.

MOA: carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor

Side Effects: immune hypersensitivity reactions, burning sensation in eye, hyperchloremic acidosis, kidney stones

14

Brinzolamide

Treats open angle glaucoma by inhibiting production of bicarbonate ions which ultimately inhibits aqueous humor production.

Also treats intraocular hypertension.

MOA: carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor

Side Effects: hyperchloremic acidosis, kidney stones

15

Apraclonidine

Lower ocular pressure associated with eye surgery by decreasing production of aqueous humor and increasing drainage.

MOA: Alpha-2 receptor agonist

Side Effects: depression, dizziness, chest pain

16

Brimonidine

Treats open angle glaucoma by decreasing aqueous humor production and increasing uveoscleral drainage.

Treats ocular hypertension

MOA: Alpha-2 agonist

Side Effects: irregular heart rate, fatigue, dry, mouth, red eyes

17

Dipivefrin

Treats open angle glaucoma by vasoconstricting blood vessels to the ciliary epithelium and preventing production of aqueous humor.

MOA: non-selective adrenergic agonist (metabolized to Epinephrine once inside the eye)

Side Effects: xerostomia, somnolence, burning eye

18

Epinephrine

Treats open angle glaucoma by vasoconstricting blood vessels to the ciliary epithelium and preventing production of aqueous humor.

MOA: non-selective adrenergic agonist

Side Effects: xerostomia, somnolence, mydriasis