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What follows sodium in the progression of opening of ion channels?



most potent vasoconstrictor produced by the body

Angiotensin II


The A.H.A., along with the A.C.P, recommends that patients with systolic BP averaging _____ and and/or diastolic BP of ____ should receive antihypertensive drugs (if lifestyle changes do not normalize BP)

140 to 159 mm Hg and 90 to 94 mm Hg


The A.H.A. recommends that when target organ damage or other risk factors are present, or when the systolic BP is ____ and/or diastolic BP is _____ drug therapy should not be deferred while assessing the patient’s response to lifestyle modifications.

≥160 mm Hg and ≥ 100 mm Hg


9 categories of antihypertensive drugs

diuretics, beta blockers, alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, centrally acting agents, direct vasodilators, renin antagonists


Diuretics may be classified as falling into one of the following groups:

Potassium sparing and potassium wasting (or combination of the 2)


2 types of potassium wasting diuretics

Thiazides (and thiazide related diuretics); loop diuretics


Which diuretics increase sodium and water excretion into the urine by inhibiting sodium and chloride reabsorption in the cortical thick ascending limb and the early distal tubule?



Thiazide diuretics can also cause two important minerals to be reabsorbed by the proximal tubule in increased amounts

Calcium and uric acid


Use of thiazide diuretics can result in an increase in

serum levels of both calcium and uric acid


Thiazide diuretics are best used for

initial treatment of mild hypertension particular in the setting of chronic edema


How are thiazide diuretics typically administered and why?

Orally; well absorbed by the gut


Most notable side effects of thiazide diuretics

hypotension, weakness, dizziness, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypercalcemia, hyperuricemia, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia.


4 Thiazide diuretics (generic and brand names)

• Hydrochlorthiazide – Hydrodiuril
• Chlorthalidone – Hygroton
• Metolazone – Zaroxolyn
• Thiazide – Diuril