Pharm Toxicities/Antidotes Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 Random Facts > Pharm Toxicities/Antidotes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm Toxicities/Antidotes Deck (22):
1

acetominophen

N-acetylcysteine (replenish glutathione by acting like it)

2

salicylates

-NaHCO3 (alkalinazines urine)
-dialysis (if high dose)

3

amphetamines (basic)

NH4Cl (acidify urine)

4

AChE inhibitors, organophosphates

atropine, pralidoxime

5

anti-muscarinic, anti-cholinergic agents

physostigmine salicylate, control hyperthermia

6

beta-blockers

glucagon (increases cAMP in myocardium)

7

digitalis

Normalize K, lidocaine, anti-dig Fab fragments, Mg
can give atropine too

8

Iron

deferoxamine - binds iron in body + facilitates its urinary excretion
deferasirox
(mneumonic - both have FE in them)

9

lead

CaEDTA - forms complexes w/ mono, di, trivalent ions
dimercaprol
succimer
penicillamine

10

mercury, arsenic, gold

dimercaprol (BAL) - displaces arsenic ions from sulfhydryl groups of enzymes; SE = nephrotox + HTN
succimer

11

copper, arsenic, gold

penicillamine

12

cyanide

nitrate + thiosulfate (thiosulfate transfers sulfur to form thiocyanate), hydroxocobalamin
amyl nitrate - forms methemoglobin that binds CN forming non-toxic compound cyanomethemoglobin

13

methemoglobin

methylene blue - converts iron in heme from Fe3+ to Fe2+ state
vit C

14

carbon monoxide

100% oxygen, hyperbaric O2

15

methanol, ethylene glycol (antifreeze)

fomepizole (DOC) > ethanol, dialysis

16

opioids

naloxone/naltrexone

17

benzodiazepines

flumazenil

18

TCAs

NaHCO3 (plasma alkalinization)

19

heparin

protamine

20

warfarin

vit K, fresh frozen plasma

21

tPA, streptokinase, urokinase

-aminocaproic acid
-transexamic acid (inhibs fibrinolysis)

22

theophylline

see: arrhythmia, seizures, tachycardia
tx:
-beta-blocker
-activated charcoal (decreases absorption)