PHARM: Viral Pneumonia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PHARM: Viral Pneumonia Deck (33):
1

What is the treatment for Influenza A and B viruses?

Oseltamivir (PO)
Zanamivir (inhaled)

2

What is the treatment for Influenza A virus?

Amantadine (PO)
Rimantadine (PO)

3

What is the treatment for RSV?

Ribavirin (inhalational or IV)

4

What is the treatment for Adenovirus?

Cidofovir (IV)

5

What is the treatment for Rhinovirus?

none

6

What is the treatment for Enteroviruses?

none

7

What is the treatment for human metapneumovirus?

Ribavirin (IV)

8

What is the treatment for hantavirus?

Ribavirin (IV)

9

What ist he reatment for varicella-zoster virus?

Acyclovir (IV)
Valacyclovir (PO)

10

What is the MOA of acyclovir?

Inhibition of viral DNA synthesis (via polymerase inhibition)

11

How is acyclovir metabolized?

viral cells transform it into its active triphosphate form.
Systemic elimination unchanged by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion

12

What are the AEs of acyclovir?

Headache, nausea, elevated hepatic enzymes, nasopharyngitis, neutropenia, stay hydrated to prevent kidney problems

13

What is the MOA of amantadine?

inhibition of viral entry or uncoating

14

How is amantadine metabolized?

systemic elimination unchanged by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion

15

What are the AEs of amantadine?

Multiple: neurologic, nausea, and orthostatic hypotension

Contraindicated in narrow angle glaucoma and with breastfeeding

16

What is the MOA of cidofovir?

Inhibition of viral DNA synthesis (DNA polymerase inhibition)

17

How is cidofovir metabolized?

Metabolized via pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphate kinase to mono- and then diphosphate analong and finally to the monophosphate-choline

Systemic elimination by globular filtration and tubular secretion

18

What are the AEs of cidofovir?

BBW for renal impairment/toxicity

Also neurologic, hematologic, and tubular damage

19

What is the MOA of oseltamavir?

inhibition of release of influenza virus from infected cell

20

How is oseltamavir metabolized?

hepatic metabolism to the carboxylate active form of the drug

Systemic elimination by globular filtration and tubular secretion

21

What are the AEs of oseltamavir?

Minimal: potential for fatal neuropsychiatric adverse effects
Serious skin reactions (rarely)

22

What is the MOA of ribavirin?

inhibition of viral nucleic acid synthesis

23

How is ribavirin metabolized?

Undergoes non-CYP metabolism in nucleated cells with systemic elimination of drug and products in the URINE

24

What are the AEs of ribavirin?

BBW for hemolytic anemia and M/F teratogenicity

Others: fatigue, headache, myalia, nausea, fever

25

What is the MOA of rimantadine?

Inhibition of viral entry/uncoating

26

How is rimantadine metabolized?

Extensive hepatic metabolism with renal elimination of drug and metabolites

27

What are the AEs of rimantadine?

minimal

28

What is the MOA of valacyclovir?

Pro-drug for acyclovir

29

How is valacyclovir metabolized?

converted to acyclovir (and L-valine) by first pass metabolism. Systemic elimination (acyclovir) by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion

30

What are the AEs of valacyclovir?

same as with acyclovir

31

What is the MOA of zanamivir?

inhibition of release of influenza virus from infected cell

32

How is zanamivir metabolized?

renally eliminated unchanged

33

What are the AEs of zanamivir?

Contraindicated with underlying pulmonary disease (can lead to fatal bronchospasm)

Other: Headache, throat/tonsil pain, cough, viral infection