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Flashcards in pharmaco - chapter 5 Deck (81):
1

major involuntary, unconscious, autonomic portion of the nervous system
-contrasts in several ways with the somatic nervous system

ANS

2

– major pathway for information transmission from CNS to the involuntary effector tissues

Motor (efferent) portion of ANS

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2 Major Subdivisions of ANS:

1. PANS
2. SANS

4

– semiautonomic part of the ANS located in the GI tract
-consists of myenteric plexus or plexus of Auerbach and the submucous plexus of plexus of Meissner

ENS

5

SYMPATHETIC (SANS) Preganglionic fibers originate from:

• Thoracic (T1-T12) segments of the cord
• Lumbar (L1-L5) segments of the cord

6

PARASYMPATHETIC (PANS) Preganglionic motor fibers originate from

• Cranial nerve nuclei III, VII, IX and X
• Sacral segments (S2-S4)

7

Sympathetic or para
Most of the ganglia are located in 2 paravertebral chains that lie along the spinal cord

SYMPATHETIC

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Sympathetic or para
Preganglionic fibers are short and the postganglionic fibers are long

SYMPATHETIC

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• Most of the ganglia are located in the organs innervated, most distant from the spinal cord

PARASYMPATHETIC

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• Preganglionic fibers are long and the postganglionic fibers are short

PARASYMPATHETIC

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• A nerve ending that releases acetylcholine as the primary transmitter
• Also a synapse in which acetylcholine is the primary transmitter

CHOLINERGIC

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primary transmitter in all autonomic ganglia and at the synapses between the parasympathetic ganglia and their effector cells

Ach

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• All postganglionic parasympathetic fibers are

cholinergic

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• A few postganglionic sympathetic fibers are

cholinergic

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• All preganglionic fibers are

cholinergic

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• Ach Synthesis Enzyme:

choline acetyltransferase

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Ach is synthesized from

Acetyl-coA+choline

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Rate-limiting step of Ach synthesis:

transport of choline into nerve terminal

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• Inhibits transport/synthesis of ACh into the cell


HEMICHOLINIUM

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• Inhibits storage of ACh into the vesicle

VESAMICOL

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• Inhibits the release of Ach
• Prevents contraction of muscles

BOTULINUM TOXIN

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• A nerve ending that releases norepinephrine as the primary transmitter

ADRENERGIC

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• Also a synapse in which norepinephrine is the primary transmitter

ADRENERGIC

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• Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers are

adrenergic

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• Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers are adrenergic except for

sweat glands, thermoregulatory center, arrector pili

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• Adrenal cortex and medulla
• Ductless gland that functions as a ganglion
• Postganglionic fibers are cholinergic

ADRENAL GLAND

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• Inhibits the synthesis of NE




METYROSINE

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• Inhibits the storage of NE
• Anti-hypertensive agent

RESERPINE

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• Inhibits release of NE
• Used to lower blood pressure

GUANETHEDINE

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• Inhibits metabolism of NE
• Vasoconstriction, higher BP

MAO I
Monoamine oxidase

31

what is the effect of reserpine to blood pressure

lowers it

32

what is the effect of guanethedine to blood pressure

lowers it

33

what is the effect of MAO to blood pressure

Raises it

34


• Other transmitter molecules in addition to the primary agents (ACh or NE)
• Contained in many autonomic nerves
• Localized in the same vesicle as the primary transmitter or in a separate population of vesicles

COTRANSMITTERS

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function of COTRANSMITTERS

• Involved in the modulation of synaptic transmission
or balance

36

What are the 7 cotransmitters

Neuropeptide Y, Enkephalin, ATP, Neurotensin, VIP, Substance P, Somatostatin

37


• Also referred as cholinergic receptors
• Respond to ACh and its analogs

. CHOLINOCEPTORS

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CHOLINOCEPTORS ARE Subdivided into

1. MUSCARINIC receptors
2. NICOTINIC receptors

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• Respond to muscarine (an alkaloid)
• Respond to ACh
• Mimics the effects of parasympathetic

MUSCARINIC receptors

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SIGNALING MECHANISM OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

• G-protein coupled

41

type of cholinoceptor located primary on effector cells

muscarinic

42

M1 location

nerve endings

43

M2 location

heart

44

M3 location

effector cells, smooth muscle, exocrine glands, endothelium

45


• Respond to ACh
• Respond to nicotine (another ACh mimic)
• Do not respond to muscarine

NICOTINIC receptors

46

SIGNALING MECHANISM OF NICOTINIC receptors

• Ligand-gated ion channel

47

• 2 major subtypes OF NICOTINIC receptors

o Nn-neuronal (ANS ganglia)
o Nm-neuromuscular endplate (skeletal muscle)

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• Also referred as adrenergic receptors
• Respond to NE

ADRENOCEPTORS

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SIGNALING MECHANISM OF ADRENOCEPTORS

• G-protein coupled

50

ADRENOCEPTORS subdivided into

o ALPHA receptors
o BETA receptors

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alpha 1 receptor predom in

blood vessels

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alpha 2 receptor predom in

presynaptic cleft

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B1 receptor predom in

heart and kidney

54

B2 receptor predom in

heart, liver, uterus, pancreas, smooth muscle, lungs

55

B3 receptor predom in

fat or adipose tissue/cell

56

type of integration Predominant state in any situation

CENTRAL INTEGRATION

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• Ergotrophic (energy expenditure)
• ”Fight or flight” response

SYMPATHETIC

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• Tropotrophic (energy saving)
• Leading to growth
• ”Rest and digest”

PARASYMPATHETIC

59

Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters.
With parasympathetic stimulation, --- would be released.

Ach

60

Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters.
With sympathetic stimulation, --- would be released.

NE

61

ORGAN EFFECTS
EYE

sym and para

S: dilation of pupil
P: constriction of pupil

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term that denotes dilation of pupil

Mydriasis –

63

term that denotes constriction of pupil

miosis

64

ORGAN EFFECTS
HEART

sym and para

S: increase HR
P: decrease HR

65


Most of the time, the effect of parasympathetic is opposite the effect of sympathetic because

most of the organs in the body are dually innervated.

66

ORGAN EFFECTS
LUNGS

sym and para

S: bronchodilation
NE + Beta 2 – bronchodilation
P: bronchoconstriction

67

What type of stimulation predominates in GIT

para

68

What type of stimulation predominates in glands

para

69

what happens to GIT when Overdose of parasympathetic drug =

diarrhea

70

parasympathetic effect in the GIT

increased motor and secretory activites

71

predominant receptor for uterus

Beta2

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uterus has ____receptor only

sympathetic, NO PARA

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If Uterus is β2, heart is also β2, what happens when NE binds to β2

Increase heart rate, relaxation of uterus

74

in uterus, NE + β2

RELAXATION

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– known as the bladder muscle

Detrussor

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-under parasympathetic stimulation,

it contracts

77

-under sympathetic stimulation, it will contract or relax

relax

78

when the detrussor muscle is relaxed, what happens to ureter

won't open, urine can't get out

79

type of stimulation in liver

sympathetic

80

-all glands under the influence of

parasympathetic

81

when parasympathetic increase in glands, what happens to amount of secretion

increases

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