pharmaco chapter 6 final reviewer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in pharmaco chapter 6 final reviewer Deck (45):
1


• Most of the ganglia are located in the organ innervated, most distant from the spinal cord

PARASYMPATHETIC

2

• Preganglionic fibers are long and the postganglionic fibers are short

PARASYMPATHETIC

3


• Most of the ganglia are located in 2 paravertebral chains that lie along the spinal cord

SYMPATHETIC

4

• Few (prevertebral) on the anterior aspect of the aorta

SYMPATHETIC

5

• Preganglionic fibers are short and the postganglionic fibers are long

SYMPATHETIC

6

NEUROTRANSMITTERS (NTAs)
4 FEATURES

1. Synthesis
2. Storage
3. Release
4. Termination of action

7


• Primary transmitter in all autonomic ganglion and parasympathetic postganglionic synapses

• Acetylcholine (ACh)

8

• ACh is synthesize from acetyl-CoA and choline by

choline acetyltransferase

9

• ACh is synthesize from ------- by choline acetyltransferase

acetyl-CoA and choline

10

• Release of Ach transmitter stores from vesicles in the nerve endings requires the entry of --- and interaction between several proteins in the vesicle

calcium

11

3. Termination of action of ACh (how)

• Metabolized to acetate and choline by acetylcholinesterase

TERMINATION OF ACTION
• By metabolism
• Acetylcholinesterase
• Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
• Cathecol-o-methly transferase (COMT)
• Diffuse away from the synaptic cleft and get metabolized elsewhere
• Taken up to presynaptic cell
• UPTAKE 1
• Taken up to postsynaptic cell
• UPTAKE 2

12

• Not excreted but recycled in the body

Ach

13


• Inhibits synthesis of ACh into the cell

HEMICHOLINIUM

14


• Inhibits storage of ACh into the vesicle

VESAMICOL

15


• Inhibits the release of ACh

BOTULINUM TOXIN

16

Primary transmitter at the sympathetic postganglionic synapses

Norepinephrine (NE)

17

• Tyrosine hydroxylase is inhibited by

METYROSINE

18

inactivates portions of the NTA NE in the cytoplasm

• MAO

19

TYPE OF NEUROTRANSMITTER
• Metabolism is not responsible for termination of action

NE

20

inhibits the release of NE

• GUANETHIDINE

21

inhibit the metabolism of NE

• MAO INHIBITORS

22

inhibits the transport/storage of NE

• RESERPINE

23


• Inhibits the synthesis of NE

METYROSINE

24


• A nerve ending that releases acetylcholine as the primary transmitter

CHOLINERGIC

25

• Also a synapse in which acetylcholine is the primary transmitter

CHOLINERGIC

26


• A nerve ending that releases norepinephrine as the primary transmitter

ADRENERGIC

27

• Also a synapse in which norepinephrine is the primary transmitter

ADRENERGIC

28

Type of adrenergic receptors Located in
• Blood vessels
• Presynaptic nerve terminals
• Blood platelets
• Fat cells (lipocytes)
• Neurons in the brain

Alpha

29


• Drug that block action potential
• Very nonselective
• Act on the process that is common to all neurons
• Eg, lidocaine

LOCAL ANESTHETICS

30


• Promote the release of NE
• Effect is sympathetic

TYRAMINE AND AMPHETAMINE

31



• Prevents storage of ACh


VESAMICOL

32

• Blocks uptake of ACh
• Slows synthesis of ACh

HEMICHOLINIUM

33

Prevents release ACh

BOTULINUM TOXIN

34


• Binds alpha receptors
• Causes activation (agonist)

NOREPHINEPHRINE

35


• Binds alpha receptors
• Prevents activation (antagonist)



PHENTOLAMINE

36

• Binds beta receptors
• Activates adenyl cyclase (agonist)

ISOPROTERENOL

37


• Binds to beta receptors
• Prevents activation (antagonist)

PROPRANOLOL

38


• Causes skeletal muscle contraction (agonist)


NICOTINE

39

• Prevents skeletal muscle contraction (antagonist)

TUBOCURARINE

40


• Binds muscarinic receptors
• Activates (agonist)

BETANECHOL

41


• Binds muscarinic receptors
• Prevents activation

ATROPINE

42


• Inhibits enzyme acetylcholinesterase
• Prolongs and intensifies transmitter action


NEOSTIGMINE

43


• Inhibits MAO
• Increases stored transmitter pool


TRANYLCYPROMINE

44

A receptor that binds, and is activated by, acetylcholine and related drugs

Cholinoceptor, cholinergic receptor

45

A receptor that binds, and is activated by, one of the catecholamine transmitters or
hormones (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine) and related drugs

Adrenoceptor, adrenergic receptor

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