Flashcards in Pharmacodynamics - Adverse Drug Reactions and Drug-Drug Interactions Deck (9)
_______ curves are used to characterize drug responses in populations of subjects.
Graded dose-response curves are plots in which ________.
increasing doses are given to the same subject and effect is given as a fraction of the maximum
Therapeutic Index (TI) = _________
Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) / Effective Dose (ED50)
Note: In this case ED50 is not half Emax, but rather the quantal indication of the dose required for half the population to see the desired effect.
Most drugs in clinical use have TIs greater than _____.
Standard Safety Margin (SSM) = _________.
[(LD1)/(ED99) - 1] x 100
This is the percent above ED99 that must be increased to see a toxic effect in 1% of the population.
Side effects, extension effects, and toxic effects are all ________.
adverse reactions to a drug, but they occur at increasing concentrations (with side effects in the therapeutic window and toxic effects at the extreme)
_______ and _____ are both adverse reactions to a drug within the therapeutic window, but ______ are related to the therapeutic goal while _____ are not.
Side effects; extension effects; extension effects; side effects
The FDA classifies drugs by their risk to fetal development as ________.
A, B, C, D, and X, in order of increasing proof of teratogenicity.