Pharmacologic Basis of Vaccination/Immunology Flashcards Preview

Ther 201 LE 3 > Pharmacologic Basis of Vaccination/Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacologic Basis of Vaccination/Immunology Deck (43):
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It is the resistance developed in response to stimulus by an antigen, characterized by the production of antibodies BY THE HOST

Active Immunity

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Conferred by an antibody produced by ANOTHER host

Passive Immunity

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Stimulate proliferation of T and B cells, resulting in formation of effector and memory cells. Relatively permanent due to memory cells

Active Immunization

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How to acquire Active Immunization

Natural Infection
Vaccines
Toxoids

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Protection transferred from another person or animal with temporary effects

Passive Immunization

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How to acquire Passive Immunization

Natural Maternal Antibodies
Antitoxins
Immunoglobulins

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T/F Antibody transfer triggers the immune system

(may trigger)
Risks: IgE specific for passive antibody -> mast cell degranulation
IgM/IgG specifc for passive antibody -> hypersensitivity

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Why use passive immunization

1. unable to form antibodies
2. prevention of disease when time does not permit active immunization
3. treatment normally prevented by immunization (tetanus)
4. impractical or unavailable active immunization (snake bite)

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condition wherein one cannot form antibodies

(congenital agammablobulinemia)

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Types of Immunizing Agents

Immunoglobulins
Antiserum/Antitoxin
Vaccines

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Types of Ig available for passive immunization

Human normal Ig
Human specific Ig

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T/F Vaccines must be pathogenic and antigenic

T

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Disease with Human normal Ig

Hepa A
Measles
Rabies
Tetanus
Mumps

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Disease with Human Specific Ig

Hepa B
Varicella
Diphtheria

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Disease with non-human Ig (antisera)

Diphtheria
Tetanus
Gas gangrene
Botulism
Rabies

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Principles underlying vaccination

Self v nonself
Antigen specificity
Indicated by effector cells presence
PRotecion from infectious diseases

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Majority of the population is immune (vaccinated), low chance of a susceptible individual contacting infected individual, can lead to the disappesrance of disease

Herd Immunity

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Factors affecting herd immunity

Environment (crowded, seasonal variations)
Strength of immune system
Infectiousness of disease

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example of a vaccine with short incubation period

influenza

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example of a vaccine with long incubation period

Poliovirus

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classification of vaccines

prophylactic - prevent future infection
therapeutic - against cancer

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types of vaccine

whole organism
pruified macromolecules
experimental
valence
heterotrophic

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types of whole-organism vaccines

attenuated
live-attenuated

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What is attenuation?

reduce in force, value, amount or degree - to weaken the pathogenic form; achieved by growth under abnormal culture conditions

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Live attenuated vaccine is contraindicated in

immunosuppresed persons due to:
-leukemia and lymphoma
-other malignancies
-receiving corticosteroids and anti-metabolic agegnts
-radiation
-pregnancy

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advantage of live vaccines

capacity for transient growth, single immunization, prolonged immune system exposure

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Live Vaccines with multiple immunization

Sabin Polio vaccine;
need for boosters

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principle behind boosters

1st immunization: one strain predominates in growth
next immunizations: immunity by previous immunization limits growth of previous previously predominant strain

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vaccines wherein organisms are killed by heat, chemicals, antibiotics, radiation but still antigenic

Inactivated Vaccines

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disadvantage of inactivated vaccines

less effective than attenuated due to potentially denatured epitopes

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Only absolute contraindication of inactivated vaccines

severe local or general reaction to a previous dose

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types of purified macromolecules vaccines

Toxoids
Protein subunit
Conjugate

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toxoid preparation

detoxifying bacterial exotoxins

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toxoid MOA

after injecting, body produces antibodies against these toxoid which eventually neutralize moiety produced during infection

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protein subunit MOA

part of the pathogen (protein) without its genetic material will be used to create an immune response

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samples of protein subunit vaccines

HepB vax - surface proteins of virus
VLP againts HPV
H and N subuntis of flu virus

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why are there conjugate vaccines

some bacteria have poorly immunogenic outer coats (kasi polysaccharides) -> must conjugate to a protein

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examples of conjugate vaccines

Hib vaccine
meningococcal vax - cell wall
pneumococcal vax - capsule

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experimental vaccines examples

dendritic cell vaccines
recombinant vector
T-cell receptor peptide vax
target bacterial proteins invovled in complement inhibition
DNA vax

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vaccine which immunizes against a single antigen? 2 or more strains/2 or more organisms?

Mono/univalent;Multi/polyvalent

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Pathogens of other animals that either don't cause or cause only mild disease in organism being treated

Heterotypic / Jennerian vaccines

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Jenner's Experiment

used cowpox to protect against small pox

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example of Heterotypic vaccine

using BCG (from mycobacterium bovis) against human TB