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Respiratory System Exam 1 > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (40)
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1

How do asthma medications work? (2 ways)

Relax bronchial smooth muscle
Prevent and treat inflammation

2

What three types of nerve fibers innervate airways?

Sympathetic/adrenergic
Parasympathetic/cholinergic
Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic fibers (NANC fibers)

3

What does sympathetic stimulation cause in the airway?

Bronchodilation

4

What does parasympathetic stimulation cause in the airway?

Bronchoconstriction

5

What does NANC stimulation cause in the airway?

Stimulatory or inhibitory

6

What is the endogenous agonist for B2 receptors?

Epinephrine

7

Three indications for anticholinergic agents

Treatment of COPD
Treatment of acute asthma exacerbations
When B-agonist are contraindicated

8

What are the six bronchoconstricting peptides? (released by NANC fibers)

Neurokinin A
Calcitonin gene-related peptide
Substance P
Bradykinin
Tachykinin
Neuropeptide Y

9

What two bronchodilators does NANC fibers release?

NO
VIP

10

What type of T cells does asthma trigger?

TH2

11

What does IL-4 induce?

B cells to produce exaggerated amounts of IgE
IgE binds to mast cells

12

What does IL-13 induce?

Causes goblet cell hyperplasia, increased mucus production, smooth muscle hyperplasia/hypertrophy

13

What does IL-5 induce?

Recruits eosinophils

14

What is ipratropium used for?

Astha not responsive to inhaled B2 agonist
COPD

15

Why is ipratropium better than atropine?

Not significantly absorbed
Minimal side effects

16

Ipratropium mechanism of action

Muscarinic antagonist

17

What long acting anticholinergic is used for COPD?

Tiotropium
(and ipratropium)

18

Terbutaline
B1, B2, or mixed selectivity?

B2

19

Albuterol
B1, B2, or mixed selectivity?

B2

20

Pirbuterol
B1, B2, or mixed selectivity?

B2

21

Biterol
B1, B2, or mixed selectivity?

B2

22

Isoproterenol
B1, B2, or mixed selectivity?

Mixed

23

Metaproternol
B1, B2, or mixed selectivity?

B2 selective with slight B1 action

24

Why are anti-asthma agents better in inhalant form? (such as albuterol)

Reduced systemic effects of drug

25

What can high doses of B2 agonist cause? And why?

Tremor because the receptors are expressed in peripheral skeletal muscles

26

What are formoterol and salmeterol?

Long acting beta agonist (LABA)

27

What is the advantage of LABA and why?

Have lipophilic side chain-->resist degradation
Used prophylaxis

28

What must be administered with formoterol and salmeterol? And why?

Corticosteroids because they dont treat inflammation

29

How do methylxanthines work?

Nonspecific inhibition of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes
Prevents cAMP degradation causing relaxation of muscle
Also inhibit inflammation

30

What are two methylxanthines?

Theophylline
Aminophylline