Pharmacology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology 2 Deck (59):
1

Antineoplastic folic acid analog that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase

Methotrexate

2

Antineoplastic pyrimidine analog that inhibits thymidylate synthetase

5-fluorouracil (5-FU)

3

Antineoplastic pyrimidine analog that inhibits DNA polymerase

Cytarabine

4

Serious side effect associated with cytarabine

Pancytopenia

5

Three antineoplastic purine analogs that inhibit purine synthesis

Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine

6

Drug used concurrently with antineoplastics to reduce renal precipitation of urates

Allopurinol

7

Two antineoplastics that require dose-reduction in patients who are taking allopurinol

Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine

8

Inhibits microtubule formation by binding to β-tubulin; dose-limiting side effect is bone marrow suppression

Vinblastine

9

Inhibits microtubule formation by binding to β-tubulin; dose-limiting side effect is neurotoxicity (areflexia, peripheral neuritis, paralytic ileus)

Vincristine

10

Hyperstabilizes microtubule polymer in M-phase and prevents microtubule breakdown

Paclitaxel, -taxels

11

Two prodrugs, that after liver bioactivation, bind to N7 nitrogen of guanine and cross-link DNA

Cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide

12

Serious side effect of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide due to generation of acrolein

Hemorrhagic Cystitis

13

Agent that is used to bind acrolein and prevent drug-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

Mesna

14

Nitrosureas that spontaneously form active intermediates that cross-link DNA; can cross blood-brain-barrier and is indicated for brain tumors

Carmustine, -mustines, streptozocin

15

Akylating agent that has greater activity against myeloid cells than lymphoid cells; serious side effects include myelosuppression and pulmonary fibrosis

Busulfan

16

Two anthracyclines that chelate DNA, form free radicals, and cause dose-limiting cardiotoxicity

Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin

17

Iron-chelator that is used to protect against anthracycline-induced cardio-toxicity

Dexrazoxane

18

DNA intercalating agent useful for treatment of solid tumors in children

Dactinomycin (actinomycin D)

19

DNA intercalating agent with minimal myelosuppression that induces formation of free radicals; dose-limiting side effects include pulmonary fibrosis and mucocutaneous reactions

Bleomycin

20

Antineoplastic with G2 phase cell cycle selectivity

Bleomycin

21

Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor with S phase cell cycle selectivity that is used for management of sickle cell anemia

Hydroxyurea

22

Platinum-derivatives that form DNA intrastrand cross-links; causes dose-limiting nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity

Cisplatin, carboplatin

23

Two antineoplastics that inhibit topoisomerase I

Irinotecan, topotecan

24

Two antineoplastics that inhibit topoisomerase II

Etoposide, teniposide

25

Inhibits BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase expressed by the Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myeloid leukemia
toxicity is Fluid retention

Imatinib (Gleevec)

26

Inhibits BRAF kinase in melanomas with BRAF V600E mutation; Treats metastatic melanoma

Vemurafenib

27

Chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 antigen found on non-Hodgkin lymphomas and normal B lymphocytes

Rituximab

28

Recombinant human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), used for solid tumor like colorectal cancer and renal cell carcinoma

Bevacizumab

29

Recombinant human monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) receptor; useful for breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2

Trastuzumab

30

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist that can be used to inhibit leutinizing hormone secretion and testosterone production in men with advanced prostate cancer

Leuprolide

31

Two most commonly used glucocorticoids for cancer due to their lymphotoxic effects; may cause Cushing-like symptoms

Prednison, Prednisolone

32

Increase activity of cytoxic cells and indicated for hairy cell leukemia

Interferon alpha-2b

33

Agent used for hypochromic microcytic anemias

Ferrous sulfate

34

Agent used for megaloblastic anemia (but does not reverse neurologic symptoms) and decrease neural tube defects during pregnancy

Folic acid

35

Agent used for megaloblastic anemia with neurological deficits

Vitamin B12

36

Agent used for pernicious anemia

Cyanocobalamin (Vit B12)

37

Agent used for anemias (especially with renal failure)

erythropoietin

38

Agent used for neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation

Filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimualting factor) and sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)

39

Inhibits the S-stage of cell cycle (DNA synthesis)

Etoposide and Antimetabolites

40

Inhibits G2-stage of cell cycle (syn of components needed for mitosis)

Bleomycin and Etoposide

41

Inhibits M-stage of cell cycle

Vinca Alkaloids and Taxols

42

To reverse Methotrexate myelosuppression

Leucovorin (folinic aicd)

43

Non-neoplastic use of methotrexate

abortion, ectopic pregnancy, RA, psoriasis, IBD

44

Mucositis

S/E of methotrexate

45

Tx of OD of 5-FU

Uridine

46

Used to tx colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, basal cell carcinoma (topical)

5-FU

47

Used to prevent organ rejection, RA, SLE

Azathrioprine

48

Activated by HGPRT

Azathioprine, 6-MP, 6-thioguanine

49

Used for Wilms Tumor, Ewing Sarcoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma (childhood tumors)

Dactinomycin (actinomycin D)

50

Used to ablate patient's BM before BM transplant

Busulfate

51

Used to prevent nephrotoxicity with Cisplatin or Carboplatin

Amifostine

52

Toxicity may cause Cushing-like symptoms; weight gain, central obesity, muscle breakdown, cataracts, acne, osetoporosis, HTN, peptic ulcers, hyperglycemia, psychosis

Prednisone and Prednisolone

53

Selective estrogen receptor modulators, receptor antagonists in breast and agonists in bone

Tamoxifen, Raloxifene

54

useful to prevent osteoporosis

Raloxifene

55

Partial agonist in endometrium which increases the risk of endometrial cancer; hot flashes

Tamoxifen

56

Endometrial Antagonist but still fights breast cancer

Raloxifene

57

drugs that cause cardiotoxicity

Doxorubicin and trastuzumab

58

Nephrotoxic and acoustic nerve damage

Cisplatin/Carboplatin

59

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