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Flashcards in Pharmacology 3 Deck (34)
1

Where do osmotic diuretics work?

Proximal tubule

2

Name an osmotic diuretic

Mannitol

3

Where does most isoreabsorption of water take place?

Proximal tubule

4

Do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors cause an alkalois or acidosis?

They cause excretion of HCO3 with Na+, K+ and H20
-cause an ALKALINE diuresis and METABOLIC acidosis will result

5

Used for prophylaxis of altitude sickness

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

6

Inhibits secretion of vasopressin

Ethanol

7

Enhances secretion of vasopressin

Nicotine

8

Lithium and vasopressin

Inhibits

9

Demeclocycline

Blocks effect of vasopressin

10

What do V1a receptors mediate?

Vasoconstriction

11

What do V2 receptors mediate?

H2O resorption in collecting tubule

12

What happens if you block V2 receptors?

Causes excretion of water without accompanying Na+

(this then raises plasma Na+ concentration)

13

Competitive antagonists of vasopressin receptors

Vaptans

14

When is tolvaptan used?

SIADH

15

Drug used in SIADH

Tolvaptan

16

Where does reabsorption of glucose take place?

Proximal tubule

17

Where is SGLT1 expressed?

Intestine and the kidney

18

Where is SGLT2 expressed?

Almost exclusively in the proxiaml tubule

19

SGLT2 absorb up to ____ glucose

90%

20

SGLT1 absorb up to ____ glucose

10%

21

How is glucose reabsored?

Secondary active transport (apical membrane)
Facilitated diffusion (basolateral membrane)

22

SGLT2

2 sodium for 1 glucose

23

SGLT1

1 sodium for 1 glucose

24

Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin

Inhibitor of SGLT2

25

What do SGLT2 inhibitors cause?

Excretion of glucose
Decrease in HbA1c
Weight loss

26

How are prostaglandins formed?

Formed from fatty acid arachidonic acid by COX1 and 2

27

Where is PGE2 made?

Medulla

28

Where is PGI2 made?

Glomeruli

29

When are prostaglandins synthesised?

In response to ischaemia, mechanical trauma, angiotensin II, ADH and bradykinin

30

How do prostaglandins affect GFR?

-a direct vasodilator effect upon the afferent arteriole
-release renin = lead to increased levels of angiotensin II that vasoconstricts efferent arteriole

31

Detrimental "triple whammy" effect

ACEI, diuretic and NSAID

32

Why do NSAIDs precipitate renal failure?

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) inhibit COX and may precipitate acute renal failure (greatly decreased GFR) in conditions where renal blood flow is dependent upon vasodilator prostaglandins (cirrhosis of the liver, heart failure, the nephrotic syndrome)

33

What are probenecid and sulfinpyrazole?

Uricosurics
Block reabsorption of urate in proximal tubule

34

How must you administer mannitol?

IV (membrane impermeable)