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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (43)
1

Involves a disorder of glomerular filtration, allowing protein (largely albumin) to appear in the filtrate

The Nephrotic syndrome

2

Why does hepatic cirrhosis with ascites cause oedema?

Increased pressure in the hepatic portal vein, combined with decreased production of albumin, causes loss of fluid into the epritoneal cavity and oedema (ascites)

3

Where do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work?

Proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule

4

Where do loop diuretics work?

Thick ascending limb of the loop of henle

5

Where do thiazide diuretics work?

Distal convoluted tubule

6

Where do potassium sparing diuretics work?

Collecting tube

7

OATs (organic anion transporters) transport which type of drug?

Transport acidic drugs
e.g. thiazides and loop agents

8

OCTs (organic cation transporters) transport which type of drug?

Transport basic drugs (e.g. triamterene and amiloride)

9

Are thiazide and loop diuretics acidic or basic?

Acidic

10

Inhibit the Na+/K+/2Cl- carrier by binding to the Cl- site

Loop diuretics
e.g. Furosemide and Bumetanide

11

Furosemide and Bumetanide are which type of diuretic?

Loop diuretic

12

Type of diuretic that also possesses a vasodilator action?

Possess an additional, indirect, vasodilator action (mechanism uncertain) that contributes to their effectiveness in the treatment of hypertension (where they are used in combination with other antihypertensive agents

13

Cause up to 5% of Na+ to be excreted, producing a modest diuresis

Thiazide diuretics

14

The site of action of many diuretics is the _____ membrane of tubular cells?

Apical membrane

15

At the basolateral membrane, organic ions (OA-) are enter the cell by either diffusion, or in exchange for what?

Alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG)

16

How is alpha-KG transported into a cell?

Via an Na+ decarboxylase transporter

17

MRP2 transports anions or cations?

Anions
MRP1 transports cations

18

Possess an additional, indirect venodilator action (before diuresis) that is beneficial in pulmonary oedema caused by heart failure

Loop diuretics

19

Can be used to treat acutely elevated calcium levels in the serum?

Loop diuretics
-these also cause excretion of magnesium and calcium


(remember there is a paracellular pathway in the thick ascending limb of the loop of henle, where Ca and Mg pass through

20

At the basolateral membrane, how do organic ions enter the cell?

Diffusion or in exchange for alpha-KG

21

How is alpha-KG transported into the cell?

Via Na+ decarboxylase transporter

22

At the apical membrane, how does OA- enter the lumen

Via MRP2 or OAT4 (in exchange for alpha-KG)

23

At the basolateral membrane, how do organic cations enter the cell?

Via diffusion or OCT

24

At the apical membrane, how do OC enter the lumen?

Via MRP1 or OC+/H+ antiporters

25

Type of diuretic that increases reabsorption of Ca?

Thiazide diuretics

26

Type of diuretic used in renal stone disease and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

Thiazide diuretic

27

Na+/H+ exchange blocked by what

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

28

Na+/K+/CL- cotransport blocked by what?

Loop diuretics

29

Na+/Cl- cotransport blocked by what?

Thiazide diuretics

30

Increase excretion of Ca2+ and Mg2+

Loop diuretic

31

These drugs also induce renal synthesis of prostaglandins, which contributes to their renal action including the increase in renal blood flow and redistribution of renal cortical blood flow.

Loop diuretics

32

Diuretics which could cause metabolic alkalosis?

Loop diuretic
Thiazide diuretic

33

Increase reabsorption of Ca2+

Thiazide diuretic

34

Possess venodilator action

Loop diuretics

35

Possess vasodilator action

Thiazide diuretics

36

Which type of diuretic used in renal stone disease?

Thiazide (reduce amount of calcium you are peeing out)

37

Which type of diuretic used in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

Thiazide

38

Diuretic which could cause male sexual dysfunction?

Thiazide

39

Diuretic which could cause impaired glucose tolerance?

Thiazide

40

What type of receptors does aldosterone bind to?

Intracellular

41

Why do loop and thiazide diuretics cause potassium loss?

Increase Na+ reabsorbed (collecting tubule)

This makes lumen more negative

Membrane depolarised

K+ chucked out into the lumen and washed away

42

Amiloride

Potassium sparing diuretic

(poor absorption from GI tract)

43

Triamterene

Potassium sparing diuretic