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Flashcards in pharmacology Deck (55):
1

warfarin interacts with which drug

sulfa drugs ( i.e. Bacrim (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) by increases warfin=>INR=>bleeding

2

First pass metabolism

lowers the amt of active drug. ex: to bypass first pass metabolism, insulin must be given as in injection

3

half life

time it takes for drug concentration to decrease by 50%

4

area under the curve (AUC)

avg Amt of drug in the blood after dose is given

5

cyp450 drugs

inhibitors= increase amy of drug= risk for toxicity

macrolids
antifungals (ketoconazole, fluconazole)
cimedtidine (Tagamet)
citaprolam (celexa)

6

cimedtidine (Tagamet)

histamine H2-blocker
cyp450 inhibitor
Treats duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and other disorders of the stomach. Also treats or prevents heartburn.

7

black box TZD (thiazolidinediones)
black box

ie
rosiglitazone (Avandia)
pioglitazone (actos)
exacerbate HEART FAILURE

stop if c/o dypnea, weight gain, cough (heart failure)

8

atypical antipsychotics black box

Risperidone ( Risperadal)
Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
Quietipine ( Seroquel)

higher mortality in elderly

monitor BMI (weight gain), TSH, lipids

9

biphosphonates warning

alendronate ( Foxamax)
Risedronate (Actonel)

jaw pain (jaw necrosis)
take first thing in the morning before breakfast, no juice

10

statins warning

check CK (hepatitis)

hepatitis risk and rhabo if mixed with antifungals

11

lincosamides risk
clindamycin (cleocin)

high risk c-did

12

digoxin therapeuric range

.5-2.0
dig overdose s/s: visual change (green/yellow), GI, confusion Sever toxicity tx with Digibind.

Check dig level, K, Mag, Ca, creatinine, ekg

13

warfarin INR

2-3

INR

14

HCTZ adverse effects

hyperglycemia ( watch out with DM)!
sulfa allergy- dont' give
elevates triglcerids, LDL
elevates uric acid
hypokalemia

G: glucose, Hyperglycemia
Uric acid ( gout)
Muscle weakness (HyPOkalemia)
S: sulfa allergy

first line for HN, heart failture

15

benefit of hctz

Good for osteoporosis

16

potassium sparing diuretics
black box

alternative to sulfa allergy

triamterene (Dyrenium)
Amiloride ( Midamor)

blackbox: hyPERkalemia
don't give salt substitutes, ace/arbs

17

aldosterone antagonist adverse

glactorrhea and hyPERkalmia
black box: risk for cancer

18

Beta blocker warning

depression, fatigue
NO use in pulmonary pts
blunts hypoglycemic response

19

ace contraindications

avoid K+ sparing diuretics
avoid K+ supplements

20

arbs first line for ..

1st line for DM
1st line for Renal disease

21

ace-I black box

death/injury to fetus during 2nd and 3rd tri

22

Ca blocker warning

tx for HTN;

amlodipine ( norvasc)
dilt (cardezem)
nifedipine ( procardia)
verapamil ( Calan)- do not mix with erythromycin, clarithromycin

contraindicatiosn:
NO with HEART FAILURE
brady, CHF. avoid grapefruit

23

mono, don't give which drug

amoxcillin due to druh rash

24

COPD medications

1st line: anticholinergic (ipratropium bromide or atrovent)
1nd: short acting B2 agonist (albuteral)

all get pneumovax-p

25

tetracyline warning

teeth stain
skeletal defects during pregnancy and children

26

1st line for chlymadial infection (i.e. cervicitis, PID, atypical pneumonia)

doxy

27

macrolides interactions

erythromycin and clarithromycin are potent cyp450 inhibitors
erythromycin- careful with myasthenia gravis
azithromycin- warfarin
clarithryo- qt prolongation

28

ketolide telithromycin (ketek) contraindication

type of macrolide
don't give with myasthenia gravis- liver failure

29

tetracyclines contraindication

minocycline- don't use with antacids, oral contraceptives

30

don't use Warfarin with which drugs

erythromycin, clarithromycin dt inR risk and bleeding

31

beta lactam family drugs

cephalosporings
PCN
bactericiadal

32

1st generation cephalosporin

keflex
gram positive
tx for UTI during pregnancy

33

2nd generation cephalosporin

gram negative
cefuroxime (ceftin)
cefproxil (cefzil)
cefalclor (ceclor)

tx for sinuisitis, otitis media,

34

3rd generation cephalosporin

ceftrixone (rocephin)
Cefixime (suprax)
cefdinir (omnicef)

tx for gonorrhea

35

syphillis first line

PCN G

36

strep throat first line

PCN V

37

otitis media first line

amoxcillin (2nd line augmenten)

38

gonorrhea first line

rocephin (ceftriaxone) IM

39

mrsa first line

bactrim DS or clindaymycin

40

amoxicillin in women reaction

may cause yeast infection. recommend probiotic

41

fluroquinolones black box warning

achilles tendon rubpture. avoid strenuous exercise while on the drug.
don't use if

42

qt prolongation drugs

amiodarone, macrolids, tca, antipsychotics, fluoroquinolonoes

FATAM

43

sulfa risk

increases INR (warfarin)
patients with UTI and wafarin don't give septa
pregnant women treat UTI with amoxcillin or cephalosporin

ie
trimethoprim-siulfa (TMP

44

rx for pregnant women with UTI

amoxicillin or cephalosporin

45

avoid nsaid in what type of patient

heart failure

46

s.s aspirin toxicity

ears ringing

47

side effects of glucocorticoids (steroids)

cushings disease (round face, dorsal hump)
osteoporosis (advice exercise, vit D, calcium 1200mg, bisphosphonates)

48

schedule 1

illegal to prescribe (MDMA, ecstasy)

49

schedule 2

ie norco, demerol, cocaine, oxycontin

original prescription needed with dr.'s signature

50

schedule 3

tylenol with codeine, anabolic steroids, testosterone

51

schedule 4

benzodiazepine, ambien. can be mailed to the patient

52

schedule 5

cough medicine (less than 200mg codeine). can be mailed to the pt

53

category x drugs

proscar, propecia- finasteride, accutane, warfarin, cytotic (misoprostol), bcp, hrt, testosterone,

LIVE VIRUS; MMR, varicella, rotavirus, flumist

54

live virus

MMR, varicella, rotavirus, flumist

55

accutane protocol

2 reliable forms of bcp, negative pregnancy test 1 month before, during, and 1 month after accutane