Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular - Yr1 > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (73):
1

Name a cardiac glycoside

Digoxin

2

Name a non-selective beta-blocker

Propanolol

3

Name a B1 selective beta-blocker (3)

Atenolol
Bisoprolol
Metoprolol

4

Name a calcium sensitizer

Levosimedan

5

Name a muscarinic antagonist

Atropine

6

Name a Beta-adrenoreceptor agonist (3)

Dobutamine (B1 selective)

7

Name a HCN channel antagonist

Ivabradine

8

Name a bile acid binding resin (3)

colestryamine
colestipol
colsevelan

9

Name a drug that decreases LDL cholesterol

Ezetimibe

10

Name a anti-coagulant (5)

warfarin
heparin
low molecular weight heparin
diagatran
elexilate

11

Name a anti-platelet (2)

aspirin
clopidegrel
ticregalor

12

Name a K+ channel blocker (2)

amidarone
sotalol

13

Name a Na+ channel blocker (4)

disopyramide
lignocaine
flecoinide
propafenone

14

Name a fibrinolytic (4)

streptokinase
tissue plasminogen activator
alteplase
duteplase

15

Name a nitrate (2)

GTN
isosorbidemononitrate

16

Name a rate limiting calcium antagonist (2)

verapamil
diliatazem

17

Name a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist

amlodipine

18

Name a ACE inhibitor (2)

Lisinopril
Ramipril

19

Name a ARB (2)

losartan
vasartan

20

Name a alpha blocker

doxazosin

21

Name a K+ channel opener (2)

minoxidil
nicrandil

22

Name a thiazide diuretic

bendroflumethiazide

23

Name a loop diuretic (2)

furosemide
bumetonide

24

Name a statin (2)

simvastatin
atorvastatin

25

Name a fibrate (2)

benzafibrate
gemfibrozil

26

What are the class I anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?

Na+ channel blockers
e.g. disopyramide, lignocaine, fleccinide, propafenone
rhythm control --> slows conduction, prolongs repolarisation

27

What are the class II anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?

Beta- blockers
e.g. propranolol, atenolol
rate control --> blocks the beta- adrenoreceptor on the heart, to control the rate

28

What are the class III anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?

K+ channel blockers
e.g. amiodarone, sotalol
rhythm control --> prolongs repolarisation

29

What are the class VI anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?

Ca+ channel blockers
e.g. verapamil, diltiazem
rate control, slows depolarisation

30

How does a fibrate work?

agonist of nuclear receptor which enhances transcription of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) which hydrolyses triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol

31

How does a statin work?

Competitively inhibits HMG CoA reductase, rate limiting step enzyme, which inhibits the formation of cholesterol. Decreases LDL and total cholesterol inflammation. Stabilises atherosclerotic plaque and thrombosis.

32

How does a thiazide diuretic work?

Acts on the distal convulated tubules inhibit the Cl- and Na+ transporter preventing Na+ reabsorption
(increases plasma uric acid)

33

How does a loop diuretic work?

Acts on the thick ascending limp of the loop on Henley . inhibits 2Cl-, Na+ and K+ transport.
Decrease urine flow --> decreases excretion of Na, Cl, H2O and blood vol therefore not stimulating renin releases and decreased BP

34

How does a potassium channel opener work?

Causes hyperpolarization which switches off calcium channels. Mediated by ATP
relaxation of smooth muscle.

35

How does a cardiac glycoside work?

competes w/ K+ and at alpha subunit blocks the Na+/K+ ATPase pump. increases contractility, force and CO
Direct: shortens action potential & refractory period
Indirect: increases vagal activity, slows SA mode discharge.

36

How does a beta-blocker work?

block the beta-adrenoreceptor on the heart which decreased contractility, HR, MAP and O2 consumption

37

How does an ARB work?

Block the angiotension II receptor. inhibiting RAAS and decreasing the BP

38

How does an alpha blocker work?

block the alpha-adrenoreceptors to cause vasodilation

39

How does an ACE inhibitor work?

Block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. inhibiting the RAAS, aldosterone and ADH are not stimulated
vasodilation and decrease in BP

40

How does a calcium antagonist work?

Blocks the calcium channel decreasing conduction a SA ns AV node and decrease HR

L-type calcium channels: action potential allow depolarisation of nodal cells, allows the plateau phase on cardiac cells

41

How does a nitrate work?

Relax smooth muscle as are metabolised to NO. NO causes Ca2+ efflux = hyperpolarization and relaxation. cGMP regulates protein kinase G activity causing relaxation. dilates the coronary vessels redirecting blood flow to ischaemic areas and reduces pain.
very short acting

42

How does a fibrinolytic work?

Fibrinolytic cascade opposes the coagulation cascade
active formation of plasmin form plasminogen which lysis fibrin into fragments causing lysis of the clot.

43

How do antiplatelet work?

Blocks COX which stops formation of TXAZ which causes crosslinking of platelets Blocks ADP from binding to P2Y12 receptor and formation of fibrin

44

How do anti-coagulants work?

Binds to antithrombin II, increasing its affinity for serine proteases to greatly increase their rate of activation.
factor Xa --> activated thrombin IIa
thrombin IIa --> fribrin
fibrin --> clots blood

45

What does diagatran and elexilate directly inhibit?

thrombin

46

What does rivaroxaban directly inhibit?

factor Xa

47

How does warfarin work?

blocks clotting factors I, VII, IX, X
(serine proteases - glycoprotein precursors of active thrombin factors)
g-carboxylase enzyme is stimulated which prevents production of mature coagulation factors.

48

How does a transport protein antagonist work?

inhibits transport proteins and reduces absorption of cholesterol.

49

How do bile acid binding resins work?

cause the excretion of bile salts resulting in more cholesterol to be converted into bile salts
bile resins bind bile in the intestine so it is not absorbed in the duodenum. liver uses metabolised cholesterol to compensate for its loss.

50

How does HCN antagonist work?

inhibits the HCN channel which reduces the slope s the pacemaker potential. slows HR and decreases oxygen consumption.

51

How do beta-adrenoreceptors work?

stimulate adenylyl cyclase and production of cAMP which generates Protein Kinase A.
phosphorylation increases Ca2+ influx, release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum
increases contractility, rate and force
decreases efficiency

52

How do muscarninc antagonists work?

increases the HR by blocking the M2 muscarinic receptor from cholinergic nerves from the vagus nerve.

53

How does a calcium sensitizer work?

binds to troponin C in myocytes sensitizing them to Ca2+. increasing contractility

54

What does a calcium sensitizer treat?

Acutely decompensated congestive heart failure

55

What does a muscarinic antagonist treat?

reverses bradycardia following MI
adjunct to analgeasia
anti-cholinesterase poisoning

56

What does a beta-adrenoreceptor treat?

infarction
cardiogenic shock
cardiomyopathies
inotropic support
heart failure (dobutamine)
asthma emergency (adrenaline)
anaphylactic shock

57

What does a HCN antagonist treat?

Angina
tachycardia
mild-moderate chronic heart failure

58

What does a bile acid binding resin treat?

To increase absorption of triglycerides

59

What does a transport protein antagonist treat?

To increases LDL

60

What does an anticoagulant treat?

DVT
PE
NSTEMI
AF

61

What does an anti-platelet treat?

angina
acute MI
cerebral vascular incident (TIA)
or at risk of above

62

What does a fibrinolytic treat?

STEMI
PE
CVA
reopen closed arteries

63

What does a nitrate treat?

angina
acute AF

64

What does a calcium antagonist treat?

hypertension
angina
supraventricular arrhythmias

65

What does a ACE inhibitor treat?

heart failure
hypertension

66

What does a ARB treat?

hypertension
heart failure
(good for kidney in diabetic nephropathy, bad for kidney in renal artery stenosis)

67

What does a alpha blocker treat?

hypertension
prostatic hypertrophy

68

What does a beta-blocker treat?

angina
hypertension
heart failure
thyrotoxicosis

69

What does a cardiac glycoside treat?

heart failure
AF
Iv - acute oral - chronic

70

What does a potassium channel opener treat?

severe hypertension
angina

71

What does a diuretics treat?

hypertension
Heart failure

72

What does a statin treat?

Hypercholesterolemia

73

What does a fibrate treat?

High triglyceride levels