Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (73):
Name a cardiac glycoside
Name a non-selective beta-blocker
Name a B1 selective beta-blocker (3)
Name a calcium sensitizer
Name a muscarinic antagonist
Name a Beta-adrenoreceptor agonist (3)
Dobutamine (B1 selective)
Name a HCN channel antagonist
Name a bile acid binding resin (3)
Name a drug that decreases LDL cholesterol
Name a anti-coagulant (5)
low molecular weight heparin
Name a anti-platelet (2)
Name a K+ channel blocker (2)
Name a Na+ channel blocker (4)
Name a fibrinolytic (4)
tissue plasminogen activator
Name a nitrate (2)
Name a rate limiting calcium antagonist (2)
Name a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist
Name a ACE inhibitor (2)
Name a ARB (2)
Name a alpha blocker
Name a K+ channel opener (2)
Name a thiazide diuretic
Name a loop diuretic (2)
Name a statin (2)
Name a fibrate (2)
What are the class I anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?
Na+ channel blockers
e.g. disopyramide, lignocaine, fleccinide, propafenone
rhythm control --> slows conduction, prolongs repolarisation
What are the class II anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?
e.g. propranolol, atenolol
rate control --> blocks the beta- adrenoreceptor on the heart, to control the rate
What are the class III anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?
K+ channel blockers
e.g. amiodarone, sotalol
rhythm control --> prolongs repolarisation
What are the class VI anti-arrhythmic drugs and how do they work?
Ca+ channel blockers
e.g. verapamil, diltiazem
rate control, slows depolarisation
How does a fibrate work?
agonist of nuclear receptor which enhances transcription of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) which hydrolyses triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol
How does a statin work?
Competitively inhibits HMG CoA reductase, rate limiting step enzyme, which inhibits the formation of cholesterol. Decreases LDL and total cholesterol inflammation. Stabilises atherosclerotic plaque and thrombosis.
How does a thiazide diuretic work?
Acts on the distal convulated tubules inhibit the Cl- and Na+ transporter preventing Na+ reabsorption
(increases plasma uric acid)
How does a loop diuretic work?
Acts on the thick ascending limp of the loop on Henley . inhibits 2Cl-, Na+ and K+ transport.
Decrease urine flow --> decreases excretion of Na, Cl, H2O and blood vol therefore not stimulating renin releases and decreased BP
How does a potassium channel opener work?
Causes hyperpolarization which switches off calcium channels. Mediated by ATP
relaxation of smooth muscle.
How does a cardiac glycoside work?
competes w/ K+ and at alpha subunit blocks the Na+/K+ ATPase pump. increases contractility, force and CO
Direct: shortens action potential & refractory period
Indirect: increases vagal activity, slows SA mode discharge.
How does a beta-blocker work?
block the beta-adrenoreceptor on the heart which decreased contractility, HR, MAP and O2 consumption
How does an ARB work?
Block the angiotension II receptor. inhibiting RAAS and decreasing the BP
How does an alpha blocker work?
block the alpha-adrenoreceptors to cause vasodilation
How does an ACE inhibitor work?
Block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. inhibiting the RAAS, aldosterone and ADH are not stimulated
vasodilation and decrease in BP
How does a calcium antagonist work?
Blocks the calcium channel decreasing conduction a SA ns AV node and decrease HR
L-type calcium channels: action potential allow depolarisation of nodal cells, allows the plateau phase on cardiac cells
How does a nitrate work?
Relax smooth muscle as are metabolised to NO. NO causes Ca2+ efflux = hyperpolarization and relaxation. cGMP regulates protein kinase G activity causing relaxation. dilates the coronary vessels redirecting blood flow to ischaemic areas and reduces pain.
very short acting
How does a fibrinolytic work?
Fibrinolytic cascade opposes the coagulation cascade
active formation of plasmin form plasminogen which lysis fibrin into fragments causing lysis of the clot.
How do antiplatelet work?
Blocks COX which stops formation of TXAZ which causes crosslinking of platelets Blocks ADP from binding to P2Y12 receptor and formation of fibrin
How do anti-coagulants work?
Binds to antithrombin II, increasing its affinity for serine proteases to greatly increase their rate of activation.
factor Xa --> activated thrombin IIa
thrombin IIa --> fribrin
fibrin --> clots blood
What does diagatran and elexilate directly inhibit?
What does rivaroxaban directly inhibit?
How does warfarin work?
blocks clotting factors I, VII, IX, X
(serine proteases - glycoprotein precursors of active thrombin factors)
g-carboxylase enzyme is stimulated which prevents production of mature coagulation factors.
How does a transport protein antagonist work?
inhibits transport proteins and reduces absorption of cholesterol.
How do bile acid binding resins work?
cause the excretion of bile salts resulting in more cholesterol to be converted into bile salts
bile resins bind bile in the intestine so it is not absorbed in the duodenum. liver uses metabolised cholesterol to compensate for its loss.
How does HCN antagonist work?
inhibits the HCN channel which reduces the slope s the pacemaker potential. slows HR and decreases oxygen consumption.
How do beta-adrenoreceptors work?
stimulate adenylyl cyclase and production of cAMP which generates Protein Kinase A.
phosphorylation increases Ca2+ influx, release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum
increases contractility, rate and force
How do muscarninc antagonists work?
increases the HR by blocking the M2 muscarinic receptor from cholinergic nerves from the vagus nerve.
How does a calcium sensitizer work?
binds to troponin C in myocytes sensitizing them to Ca2+. increasing contractility
What does a calcium sensitizer treat?
Acutely decompensated congestive heart failure
What does a muscarinic antagonist treat?
reverses bradycardia following MI
adjunct to analgeasia
What does a beta-adrenoreceptor treat?
heart failure (dobutamine)
asthma emergency (adrenaline)
What does a HCN antagonist treat?
mild-moderate chronic heart failure
What does a bile acid binding resin treat?
To increase absorption of triglycerides
What does a transport protein antagonist treat?
To increases LDL
What does an anticoagulant treat?
What does an anti-platelet treat?
cerebral vascular incident (TIA)
or at risk of above
What does a fibrinolytic treat?
reopen closed arteries
What does a nitrate treat?
What does a calcium antagonist treat?
What does a ACE inhibitor treat?
What does a ARB treat?
(good for kidney in diabetic nephropathy, bad for kidney in renal artery stenosis)
What does a alpha blocker treat?
What does a beta-blocker treat?
What does a cardiac glycoside treat?
Iv - acute oral - chronic
What does a potassium channel opener treat?
What does a diuretics treat?
What does a statin treat?