Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (31)
What are 5 methods of pain control used in dentistry?
1. Topical anesthesia
2 Local anesthesia
3. Inhalation sedation & IV sedation
4. Anti-anxiety agents
5. General anesthesia
What are the components of LA cartridges?
Sodium Chloride- solution isotonic for body tissues
Distilled water- Dilutes the solution/volume
Epinephrine- To stop blood
What are some complications and precautions of anesthesia?
Injection into blood vessels, infections, toxic reactions, temporary numbness and paresthesia
What are 6 methods of pain control?
topical, electronic anesthesia, inhalation sedation, anti-anxiety agents, Intravenous sedation, general anesthesia.
What are the lengths of time for the 3 anesthetics? (short,intermediate, and long)
Short= 1-3 hours
Intermediate= 2-4 hours
Long= 4-9 hours
What are 3 reasons for paresthesia?
Damage or trauma around nerve
What are the 4 stages of anesthesia?
Stage 1= analgesia pt is relaxed and conscious
Stage 2= excitement
Stage 3= General anesthesia
Stage 4= Cardiac failure or respiratory
What stage of anesthesia do the following methods of pain control produce? (Nitrous sedation, IV sedation and General anesthesia)
Nitrous sedation= Stage 1
Iv sedation= stage 1
General anesthesia= stage 3
What are to chemical types of LA are:
amides and esters
What are 5 conditions in a Pt's MH that would be for LA with epinephrine?
Uncontrolled congestive hear failure
Loss of sensation=
What are 4 situations where use of anti-anxiety agents could be beneficial?
Nervous, long, mentally challenged and young children w/ extensive treatment
Who was the first person to use nitrous oxide as a means of pain control?
Horace Wells in 1844
How are gas cylinders of nitrous oxide distinguished from cylinders of regular oxygen?
Nitrous Oxide= blue
What are 5 contraindications for the use of nitrous oxide?
Pregnancy 1st trimester
Example of respiratory drugs:
Example of endocrine drugs:
Examples of analgesics:
Examples of gastrointestinal drugs :
Example of antiviral drugs:
Examples of Cardiovascular drugs:
Example of psychoactive drugs:
Example of antibiotics:
Example of neurological drugs:
Example of anti anxiety agents:
Examples of antifungals:
What is analgesics prescribed for;
For pain ex Advil
What are antibiotics prescribed for;
Bacterial infection ex penicillin
What are antifungal’s prescribed for;
For fungal infections ex nystatin