Pharmacology - Autonomics I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology - Autonomics I Deck (118)
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1

Postganglionic PS fibers release:

Aceytlcholine
"cholinergic"

2

Postganglionic symptathetic fibers generally release:

Norepinephrine
"adrenergic"

3

T/F: Not all postganglionic sympathetic fibers are adrenergic - other NTs can be used.

True

4

All preganglionic neurons, both sympathetic and parasympathetic, release:

ACh and stimulate nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons

5

All preganglionic neurons, both sympathetic and parasympathetic, release ACh and stimulate ______ receptors on postganglionic neurons.

Nicotinic

6

All postganglionic PS neurons release ACh and stimulate _____ ACh receptors on target tissues.

Muscarinic

7

Postganglionic symptathetic fibers to sweat glands release:

ACh

8

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers to renal vessels release:

Dopamine

9

____ blocks ACh and, when, injected, can locally inhibit muscle contraction.

Botulinim Toxin A

10

Drugs that block NE synthesis, storage or release, for example, guanethidine, are useful in several diseases like hyptertension, because they block _____ function

sympathetic, but NOT parasympathetic

11

What is the physiologic effect of cocaine?

To block NE uptake --> increase adrenergic transmission

12

Cholinoceptors include:

Muscarinic
Nicotinic

13

Where are M1 receptors found?

Location:
CNS
sympathetic PG neurons

Effects:
formation of IP3 and DAG
increased intracellular Ca
**same as M3 receptors (exocrine glands, CNS, vessels)
**same as M5 receptors (vascular endothelium esp cerebral vessels, CNS)

14

Where are M2 receptors found?

Location:
Myocardium
Smooth muscle
CNS

Effects:
open K channels
inhibit Adenyl cyclase
**same as M4 receptors (CNS)

15

Nicotinic receptors, both Nn (N2) and Nm (N1) have what effect?

Opening of Na and K channels, depolarization

16

Where are Nm (N1) receptors found?

Skeletal muscle neuromuscular end plates

17

What is the effect of Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors?

Effects:
Formation os IP3 and DAG
increased intracellular Ca

Location:
Postsynaptic effector cells esp smooth muscle

18

What is the effect of Alpha 2 (adrenoreceptors) receptors?

Effects:
Inhibition of adenyl cyclase
decreased cAMP

Location:
Presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals,
platelets
lipocytes
smooth muscle

19

All beta (adrenoreceptors) receptors have what function?

stimulate AC
increase cAMP

all found in heart, beta-1 found most widespread in the body

20

All muscarinic receptors (M1-M5) are

GPCRs
M2, M4 --> Gi (decrease cAMP, hyperpolarize) --> inhibition of neurotransmitter release

M1, M3, M5 --> Gq (increase IP3 and DAG)

**enables ACh to have specific effects, depending on the receptor

21

Class: Bethanechol

Direct acting carbamic acid ester
cholinomimetic

22

MOA: Bethanechol

Direct-acting muscarinic cholinomimetic

23

Uses: Bethanechol

Post-operative and neurogenic ileus;
urinary retention (bowel and bladder smooth muscle ACh-innervated)

24

Side Effects: Bethanechol

SLUDGE
Salivation: stimulation of the salivary glands
Lacrimation: stimulation of the lacrimal glands
Urination: relaxation of the internal sphincter muscle of urethra, and contraction of the detrusor muscles
Diaphoresis
Gastrointestinal upset: Smooth muscle tone changes causing gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea
Emesis: Vomiting

25

Class: Pilocarpine

Direct acting non-ester alkaloid
cholinomimetic

26

MOA: Pilocarpine

Direct-acting muscarinic cholinomimetic

27

Uses: Pilocarpine

Glaucoma (ACh activates sphincter and ciliary muscles of eye)

28

Side Effects: Pilocarpine

SLUDGE
Salivation: stimulation of the salivary glands
Lacrimation: stimulation of the lacrimal glands
Urination: relaxation of the internal sphincter muscle of urethra, and contraction of the detrusor muscles
Diaphoresis
Gastrointestinal upset: Smooth muscle tone changes causing gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea
Emesis: Vomiting

29

Class: Cevimeline

Direct acting non-ester alkaloid
cholinomimetic

30

MOA: Cevimeline

Direct-acting muscarinic cholinomimetic