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Flashcards in PHARMACOLOGY CHAPTER 1 Deck (97):
1

PHASES OF DRUG USAGE
 – noxious plant and animal preparations were used as medicines to rid of evil spirits

Earliest/First Phase

2

PHASES OF DRUG USAGE
– rational or scientific phase

Third Phase

3

PHASES OF DRUG USAGE
– experience enabled people to use appropriate medicine

Second Phase

4


-concerned with the processes that determine the concentration of drugs in body fluids and tissues over time
-what the body does to the drug

1. PHARMACOKINETICS

5


-study of the actions of drugs on target organs
-what the drug does to the body


2. PHARMACODYNAMICS

6

– relationship between the concentration of a drug in a tissue and the magnitude of the tissue’s response to that of a drug

Dose-response relationship

7

a process wherein drugs produce their effects by binding to protein receptors in target tissues

Signal Transduction –

8

- study of poisons and organ toxicity
-focuses on the harmful effects of drugs

TOXICOLOGY –

9

– medical science concerned with the use of drugs in the treatment of disease

PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS

10

PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS is also known as

Medical Pharmacology

11

science and profession concerned with the preparation, storage, dispensing, and proper use of drug products

PHARMACY –

12

study of drugs isolated from natural resources

PHARMACOGNOSY –

13

– branch of organic chemistry that specializes in the design and chemical synthesis of drugs

MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY

14

formulation and chemical properties of pharmaceutical products

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY or PHARMACEUTICS –

15

a natural product, a chemical substance or pharmaceutical preparation intended for administration to a human or animal to diagnose or treat a disease

drug

16

drug is from the french word

drogue

17

drogue mean

dried herbs for cooking

18

other terms for drug

medication and medicament

19

a drug produced outside the body, either synthetic or natural

Xenobiotic –

20

relationship among the drug molecule, its target receptor and resulting pharmacologic activity

Structure-activity relationship –

21

made by drying or pulverizing a plant or animal tissue, extracting substances from a natural product
-difficult to quantify pharmacologic effects of crude drug preparations because: a) they contain multiple ingredients b) amounts vary

crude drug preparation

22

ex of crude drug preparation

coffee, tea, opium

23

drug preparation
isolation of pure drug compounds from natural sources

Pure drug compounds

24

type of drug preparation

 – drug products suitable for administration of a specific dose of a drug by a particular route of administration
-most are from pure drug compounds, some from crude drug preparations (herbal remedies)

Pharmaceutical preparations or dosage forms

25

most common preparations for oral administration because:

tablets & capsules

26

– a hard pill (from a punch and die mechanism)
-must disintegrate after it has been ingested, then must dissolve in gastrointestinal fluids

Tablets

27

Inert Ingredients (4)

• Fillers – provide bulk
• Lubricants – prevent sticking to the punch and die during manufactire
• Adhesives – maintain tablet stability in the bottle
• Disintegrants – facilitate solubilization of the tablet when it reaches gastrointestinal fluids

28

– consist of polymers that will not disintegrate in gastric acid but will break down in more basic ph of the intestines
-used to protect drugs that would otherwise be destroyed by gastric acid a
-used to slow the release and absorption of a drug when a large dose is given at once

Enteric coatings

29

– release the drug from the preparation over many hours.

*Sustained release products/ extended-release products

30

Methods used to extend the release of a drug (3)

1. Controlled diffusion – release of a drug is regulated by a rate-controlling membrane
2. Controlled dissolution – done by inert polymers that gradually break doen In bady fluids
3. Osmotic pressure– an osmotic agent attracts gastrointestinal fluid at a constant rate
-attracted fluid forces drug out of tablet through a small orifice

31

or soft gelatin shells enclosing a powdered or liquid medication
-gelatin shell quickly dissolves in GI fluids

capsule

32

b. – most common liquid pharmaceutical preparations
-can be formulated for oral, parenteral or other ROA
-convenient for those who cannot easily swallow pills or tablets
-inconvenient because liquid must be measured each time a dose is given
-often sweetened and flavored to increase palatability

Solutions and Suspensions

33

sweetened aqueous solutions

syrups:

34

sweetened aqueous-alcoholic solutions

-elixirs:

35

-drug preparations in which the drug is slowly released from the patch for absorption through the skin into the circulation
-most use a rate-controlling membrane

Skin patches

36

(regulates diffusion of drug from the patch, suitable for potent drugs)

rate controlling membrane

37

-administered by inhalation through nose or mouth
-useful for treating respiratory disorders because they deliver directly to the site of action, minimizing risk of systemic sude effects

Aerosols

38

– a type of aerosol preparation
-can be used to deliver drugs that have a localized effect on nasal mucosa
-can be used to deliver drugs absorbed through the mucosa and exert effect on another organ
-ex. Butorphanol

Nasal sprays

39

– semisolid preparations intended for topical application of a drug to skin or mucous membranes
-contain an active drug incorporated into a vehicle, which enables drug to adhere to tissue for a sufficient length of time to exert its effect

Ointments and creams

40

– liquid preparations often formulated as oil-in-water emulsions
-used to treat dermatologic conditions

Lotions

41

products in which drug is incorporated into a solid base that melts or dissolves at body temperature
-used for rectal, vaginal, urethral administration
-may provide localized or systemic drug therapy

Suppositories –

42

– drug is absorbed from GI tract

ENTERAL ADMINISTRATION

43

type of enteral

-enable rapid absorption of certain drugs
-not affected by first-pass metabolism in the liver
-drugs are given in relatively low does
-drugs must have good solubility in water and lipid membranes

Sublingual (drug placed under the tongue) &Buccal (drug placed between cheek and gum)

44

type of enteral

– to administer by mouth
-medication is swallowed, absorbed from stomach and small intestine
-convenient, relatively safe, most economical

• Oral – per os (PO)

45

type of enteral

– can have localized or systemic effect
-useful when patients cannot take medications by mouth (those who experience nausea and vomiting)
-little first-pass metabolism in liver (when absorbed from lower rectum)

rectal

46

type of administration
-with needle and syringe or with intravenous fusion pump

PARENTERAL ADMINISTRATION

47

bypasses process of drug absorption
-provides greatest reliability and control over the dose of the drug reaching systemic circulation

intravenous

48

100% bioavailability

IV

49

type of administration for drugs w/ short half=lives

IV

50

Type of ROA for drugs whose dose must be carefully titrated to the physiologic response

IV

51

widely used to administer antibiotics and antineoplastic to critically ill patients
-for medical emergencies
-most dangerous (rapid administration can cause serious toxicity)

iv

52

type of parenteral administration
suitable for treatment with drug solutions and particle suspensions

Intramuscular & subcutaneous

53

injection of a drug through the thecal covering of spinal cord and into subarachnoid space

• Intrathecal–

54

– targets analgesics into space above dural membranes of spinal cord
-common in labor and delivery

epidural

55

type of parenteral
treatment of arthritis

Intraarticular

56

type of parenteral
sinus medication

Insufflation/ intranasal

57

type of parenteral
allergy test

Intradermal –

58

– application of drugs to skin for absorption into circulation
-application may be via a skin patch or an ointment
-by-passes first-pass metabolism
-reliable ROA for drugs effective when given at relatively low dosage and highly soluble in lipid membranes

TRANSDERMAL ADMINISTRATION

59

application of drugs to the body surface to produce a localized effect
–used to treat disease and trauma of skin, eyes, nose, mouth, throat, rectum, vagina

TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION–

60

– specifies chemical structure and nature of drug

CHEMICAL NAME

61

– most suitable for use by health care professionals

NONPROPRIETARY NAME or GENERIC NAME

62

– registered trademark belonging to a particular drug manufacturer
-used to designate a drug product marketed by that manufacturer

PROPRIETARY, TRADE, BRAND NAME

63

study of drugs and their effects on life processes

pharmacaology

64

meaning of pharmakon

magic charm for treating disease

65

described more than 600 medicinal plants

Dioscorides

66

described principles of Ayurvedic medicine

Susruta

67

started first medical school in pharmacology

Rudolf Buchheim

68

father of american pharmacology

John Jacob Abel

69

established first pharmacology department in Univ of Michigan

John Jacob Abel

70

goal of pharmacology

understand the mechanisms by which drug interact

71

study of interactions of chemicals with living systems

pharmacology`

72

molecular components of the body with which a drug interacts to bring about effects

receptors

73

study of drugs used for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of a disease

medical pharmacology

74

type of admin
Convenient, relatively safe, and economical.

oral

75

type of admin
Cannot be used for drugs that are inactivated by gastric acid, for drugs with a large first-pass effect, or for drugs that irritate the gut.

oral

76

type of admin
Suitable for suspensions and oily vehicles. Absorption is
rapid from solutions and is slow and sustained from
suspensions.

intramuscular

77

type of admin
May be painful. Can cause bleeding if the patient is receiving an
anticoagulant.

intramuscular

78

type of admin
Suitable for suspensions and pellets. Absorption is
similar to that in the intramuscular route but is
usually somewhat slower.

subcutaneous

79

type of admin
Cannot be used for drugs that irritate cutaneous tissues or fordrugs that must be given in large volumes.

subcutaneous

80

type of admin
Bypasses absorption to give an immediate effect.
Allows for rapid titration of drug. Achieves 100%
bioavailability.

intravenous

81

type of admin
Poses more risks for toxicity and tends to be more expensive than
other routes.

IV

82

type of admin
results in rapid absorption because of the large SA and rich blood supply in the alveoli
-useful for drugs that act on the airways

inhalational

83

type of admin
useful for drugs with high-first pass metabolism

sublingual

84

type of admin
useful for drugs that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier

intrathecal

85

area of pharmacology dealing with how drugs move throughout the body

pharmacokinetics

86

4 Components of Drug Transport:

i) Absorption
ii) Distribution
iii) Biotransformation or Metabolism
iv) Excretion

87

area of pharmacology concerned with how drugs produce responses within the body

pharmacodynamics

88

inactive drug

prodrug

89

derived from parent drug and has the same effect as that of the parent

Inactive metabolite

90

difference of transdermal and topical administration in terms of effect

transdermal - systemic
topical - localized

91

drug name
used the representative component of the drug as its name

non-proprietary

92

common name of morphine

angel dust

93

drugs can exist in how many states of matter

3

94

type of drug preparation that needs reconstitution

suspension

95

type of drug preparation intended for children

syrup

96

type of drug prep for a dry and scaly lesion/skin

ointment

97

type of drug prep for an oily lesion/skin

cream

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