what type of application would an inhaler or suppository be considered?
what is parenteral?
injected (IV, subcutaneous, IM)
what is the first pass effect?
liver immediately decreases concentration of drug before it reaches systemic circulation
what types of drugs dissolve well in the stomach?
weak acids (un-ionized)-lots of free H+ in the systems to neutralize the drug
what types of drugs dissolve well in the intestines?
weak bases (un-ionized)-wants to move to neutral drug
where will there by faster distribution?
where there is greatest perfusion (heart, brain, liver, kidney)
what is considered the central compartment?
plasma, heart, lungs, liver, kidney
what is considered the peripheral compartment?
adipose tissue, muscle tissue, CSF
how is a one compartment model different than a two compartment model?
one compartment assumes that the body is one compartment two compartment assumes drugs go first to plasma and heart and later go elsewhere
what is the fluid distribution of extracellular fluid?
what is the fluid distribution of plasma?
what does it mean for a drug to be zero order eliminated?
it is eliminated at a constant rate per hour (ie 10mg/hour)
what does it mean for a drug to be first order eliminated?
it is eliminated at a constant fraction of remaining amount of drug is eliminated (ie 10% eliminated per hour)
what does Ke stand for?
drug's elimination rate
what would a Ke of 0.25/hr mean?
25% of the drug is eliminated each hour
what is the equation for half life?
what two factors influence half life?
Ke = Clearance /Volume Distribtution
how do you calculate loading dose?
Css x Vd
how do you calculate maintenance dose?
Clearance x Css
what is polymorphism?
variant alleles with frequency of at least 1%
what are the classfications of drug interactions?
Onset (rapid or delayed)
Severity (mild, moderate or major)
Evidence (unlikely, possible, suspected, probable or established)