Pharmacology - Malaria Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology - Malaria Deck (26):
1

Which kind of malaria is involved in relapses?

P. ovale

2

Class: Quinine aka quinidine

Quinoline derivative

3

Class: Chloroquine

Quinoline derivative

4

Class: Mefloquine

Quinoline derivative

5

Class: Primaquine

Quinoline derivative

6

MOA: Quinoline derivatives except Primaquine

Accumulate in parasite’s food vacuole, disrupt heme polymerization to hemozoin, yielding oxidative damage to membranes and digestive proteases

7

Therapeutic Uses: Quinoline derivatives

Prophylaxis, treatment of acute malarial attacks

8

MOA: Primaquine

Forms quinolone-quinone intermediates that oxidize schizont membranes

Only drug that inhibits exoerythrocytic schyzogony

9

What drug should you not give people with G6PD deficiency to treat malaria?

Primaquine
Hemolysis (G6PD), methemoglobinemia

10

Side Effects: Quinoline

Cinchonism, hypotension, hypoglycemia, abortion, arrhythmias

11

What is Cinchonism?

toxicity due to overdosage of cinchona alkaloids ie **Quinoline**; symptoms are tinnitus and slight deafness, photophobia and other visual disturbances, mental dullness, depression, confusion, headache, and nausea. Called also quininism.

12

Quinoloine derivatives
Artemisinin compounds
Antifolates
Antibiotics
Other
Make up what kinds of drugs:

Anti-Malarial Drugs

13

What drug can temporarily make resistant P. falciparum sensitive to chloroquine?

Amantadine

14

MOA: Chloroguanide

Inhibitor of folate metabolism (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors)

Chloroguanide (Proguanil) used in combination with Atovaquone = Malarone

15

MOA: Atovaquone

depolarizes parasitic mitochondria and inhibits their electron transport

Atovaquone selectively interferes with mitochondrial electron transport and related processes such as ATP and pyrimidine biosynthesis in susceptible malaria parasites. It acts selectively at the cytochrome bc1 complex of the parasite’s mitochondria to inhibit electron transport and collapse the mitochondrial membrane potential.

Chloroguanide (Proguanil) used in combination with Atovaquone = Malarone

16

MOA: Artemisinin compounds

Specifically and selectively inhibit SERCA of P. falciparum

sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ca2+ atpase

17

Class: Artesunate

Artemisinin compounds

18

Class: Artemether

Artemisinin compounds

19

Class: Lumefantrine

Aminoalcohol

20

What is the only drug that inhibits exoerythrocytic schyzogony?

Primaquine
used for prophylaxis and to prevent relapses

21

Drug of choice for persistent exoerythrocyticparasites after clinical cure of acute attack by P. vivax or P. ovale.

Primaquine

22

Side Effects: doxycycline

photosensitivity

23

Side Effects: Artesunate

Neurotoxocity, prolongation of QT interval

24

_________ is a drug of choice for suppressing acute symptoms of P. malariae.

Chloroquine

25

_______ is the only drug that destroys the late hepatic stages and latent tissue forms of P. vivax and P. ovale.

Primaquine

use to prevent relapses

26

MOA Proguanil

inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
antimalarial
part of Malarone