The thoracic and lumbar regions are..
Describe the location of the greater splanchnic nerve, celiac ganglion, lesser splanic nerve, and superior mesenteric ganglia
Compare the innervations of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
What happens when you over-activate the parasympathetic nervous system?
What do the actions of the parasympathetic include?
- A decrease in the rate and force of heart beat
- Increased activity of the digestive system
- Emptying of the urinary bladder
- Erection of the genital (erectile) tissue
- Secretion of the salivary and lacrimal glands
Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons located?
- In the brainstem
- And in S2-S4
Describe the effect of over activation of nicotinic receptors
Describe nicotinic receptors
They are ligand gated ion channels
Work through depolarisation
Located: Nerve to nerve-ganglia &
Nerve to muscle
Describe muscarinic receptors
They are 7TM G protein coupled receptors
Work via ATP
Depolarise, secretion contraction
not on motor end plate
Definition of muscarinic. : of, relating to, resembling, producing, or mediating the parasympathetic effects (such as a slowed heart rate and increased activity of smooth muscle) produced by muscarine. muscarinic receptors.
How does botox work?
It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholinefrom axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis
How do cholinesterase inhibitors (Edrophonium, Neostigme, Pyridostigmine) work?
They prevent the breakdown for cholinesterase.
They block the breakdown of acetylcholine.
So give them atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist)
How does Atropine work?
Muscarinic receptor antagonist
What are some muscarinic receptor drugs?
Atropine, Scopolamine (Hyoscine)
- Secretions, bradycardia (A only), gut hypermotility
- Hyoscine for motion sickness
Tropicamide - opthalmology
What are some muscarinic receptor agonists?
Pilocarpine - glaucoma
What are the effects of noradrenergic neurons?
How does adrenal medulla contribute to adrenaline?
Has an enzyme that converts noradrenaline to adrenaline
What is the one use of adrenaline?
If we are HUNGRY
Adrenalaline released by adnreal medulla triggering gluconeogenesis
What drugs affect presynaptic noradrenergic systems?
What are synaptic MAO inhibitors?
What drugs target B2 adrenoreceptors?
Isoprenaline is a purely beta receptor agonist.
But Salbutamol is a bata-2 receptor agonist. (blocks ability of enzyme to break down the catecholamine)
What is alpha and beta selectivity?
1. Alpha- usually ANS
2. Beta - husually humeral