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Flashcards in Pharynx Deck (46):
1

Unique Nature of Pharynx

Transports fluid, solid, and air

2

Inferior border of pharynx

C6 - start of esophagus

3

4 Muscles of Pharynx Visible Posteriorly

Sup. constrictor m.
Middle constricor m.
Inf. constrictor
Stylopharyngeus

4

3 Constrictor M.s Relation

Overlap each other, w/ inferior overlapping middle and mid overlapping sup

5

Hyoid Bone (2)

Sticks out posterolaterally and acts as anchorage for middle constrictor

6

Stylopharyngeus m.

Comes down into pharynx b/w middle and sup constrictors

7

Overall Innervation of Pharynx (source and 3 types)

Pharyngeal plexus - skeletal motor, cutaneous sensory from mucosal lining, and postganglionic symps going to blood vessels

8

Motor Innervation of Pharynx (2)

Pharyngeal branches of vagus n. (X)
Except stylopharyngeus innervated by glossopharyngeal n. (IX)

9

Sensory Innervation of Pharynx (3)

Pharyngeal branches of Glossopharyngeal n. (IX)
Except auditory tube region innervated by trigeminal n. (V) and lower pharynx by vagus n. (X)

10

Gag Reflex Nerve

Glossopharyngeal n. (IX) senses and Vagus (X) does motor - IX-X reflex arc

11

Blood Supply of Pharynx (3)

Ascending pharyngeal a. off ext. carotid
Facial a.
Maxillary a.

12

3 Regions of Pharynx

Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

13

Choana

Opening at end of turbinates which marks beginning of nasopharynx from nasal cavity

14

Pharyngeal (adenoid) Tonsil

Tonsil at very posterior/superior corner of nasopharynx

15

Sleep Apnea

Caused by enlargement of pharyngeal tonsils

16

Torus Tubarius

Projection of auditory tube on nasopharynx wall

17

Ostium of Auditory Tube

Opening for auditory tube just deep torus tubarius

18

Salpingopharyngeal Fold

Comes down from back of torus tubarius and runs down pharynx, covering salpingopharyngeus m.

19

Torus levatorus

Below ostium of auditory tube, impression of levator palatini m.

20

Isthmus of Fauces

Big circular opening b/w oral cavity and oropharynx

21

2 Lateral Folds of Isthmus of Fauces

Palatopharyngeal folds from palate to pharynx
Palatoglossal folds from palate to tongue

22

Palatine Tonsils Location

B/w palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal folds

23

Lingual Tonsil Location

Base of tongue

24

Epiglottis

Cartilaginous structure that ascends in pharynx

25

Aryepiglottic folds

folds coming down from either side of epiglottis forming entrance of larynx

26

Cricopharyngeal portion of inferior constrictor muscle

Sphincter-like portion of muscle to constrict food going into esophagus

27

Piriform recesses

Recesses formed above cricopharyngeal portion of inf constricto m. and around larynx where things could get stuck

28

2 Structural Components of Hard Palate

Palatine process of maxilla
Horizontal Process of palatine bones

29

Innervation of Hard Palate (Type and 2)

All sensory
Anterior: Nasopalatine n. (V2)
Posterior: Greater palatine n. (V2)

30

Blood Supply of Hard Palate (2)

Ant: Sphenopalatine a.
Post: Greater palatine a.

31

5 Muscles in Musculomembranous Sheet of Soft Palate

Levator veli palatini
Tensor veli palatini
Musculus uvulae
Palatopharyngeus
Palatoglossus

32

Main Muscles for Lifting Soft Palate (2)

Lateral: Tensor veli palatini m. to tense soft palate/make it firm for lifting
Angled superior: Levator veli palatini m. to lift it

33

Musculus uvalae m.

Central soft palate one hanging down towards uvulua

34

Innervation of Soft Palate Muscles (2)

Vagus n. (X) except tensor veli palatini which is by V3

35

8 Muscles Innervated by V3 (and why)

Masseter, medial/lateral pterygoid, temporalis, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyeloid and anterior belly of digastric
All came from first pharyngeal arch

36

Sensory Innervation of Soft Palate (2)

Lesser palatine n. (V2)
Glossopharyngeal n. (IX)

37

Blood Supply to Soft Palate (2)

Lesser palatine a.
Ascending palatine a. from facial a.

38

Pterygomandibular raphe (3)

Lateral structure that prevents jaw from opening too wide where buccinator m. and superior constrictor m. come off (anteriorly and posteriorly, respectively)

39

Glossopharyngeal n. (IX) motor innervation

Stylopharyngeus m. only

40

Glossopharyngeal n. (IX) Sensory Innervation (4.2)

Pharyngeal plexus - mucous membrane
Posterior 1/3 of tongue - general sensation/taste
Middle ear/auditory tube - general sensation
Carotid n. - carotid sinus for blood pressure and carotid body for blood CO2

41

Glossopharyngeal n. (IX) Autonomic Innervation

Parotid gland parasympathetics

42

Frye's Syndrome (cause and effect)

From laceration on lateral side of face - cuts auriculotemporal n. and postganglionic fibers go into skin instead of parotid gland so a person will sweat on side of face instead of salivating upon neural trigger

43

Waldeyer's Ring (4 components and purpose)

Pharyngeal, tubal, palatine, and lingual tonsils to sample any antigens coming in

44

Adenoids

Enlarged pharyngeal/tubal tonsils

45

Clinical Consideration of Blood Supply to Pharyngeal Region

LOTS of different vessels so lots of bleeding can occur w/ problems there

46

Mechanism of Deglutition

Raise entire larynx up and epiglottis down so bolus passes by larynx