Pharynx and Larynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharynx and Larynx Deck (33):
1

Pharynx Function

  • Directs food into esophagus
  • conducts air into Larynx and Trachea 

2

Three partsof Pharynx

  • Nasopharynx
    • Respiratory part of pharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharyx

3

Ostium of the Auditory Tube (Pharyngotympanic/Eustacian Tube)

  • connects middle ear to nasopharynx
  • Torus Tubarius  - carilagenous portion Pharyngotympanic tube that extends into nasopharynx

4

Torus Tubarius

  • Carilagenous portion of Pharyngotympanic Tube that extends into Nasopharynx

5

Characteristics and Components of Oropharynx

  • Palatoglossal arch seperates oropharynx from oral cavity
  • Lingual Tonsil
  • Palatine Tonsil 
  • Valleculae
     

6

Origin of superior constrictor

  • Pterygomandibular raphe
  • common origin with buccinator muscle

7

Piriform Recess (location)

  • outpouching lateral to opening of larynx
  • Foreign objects can get lodged here

8

Tonsils are collections of what type of tissue?

  • Lymphoid 

9

Types of Tonsils

  • Pharyngeal tonsils
    • at roof of nasopharynx
  • Tubal tonsils
    • ostium of auditory tube
  • Lingual tonsils
    • Posterior 1/3 of tongue 
  • Palatine tonsils 
    • Between pillars of Glossopharyngeal Arches
    • tonsillar fossa 

10

Tonsillectomies (removing which tonsil and risks)

  • removing palatine tonsils
  • Risks
    • highly vascularized --> excessive bleeding
    • can damage glossopharyngeal nerve (lingual branch)
      • would lead to altered sensation from posterior 1/3 tongue

11

Tonsil Stones

  • Calcified collections of cellular debris, bacteria, etc
  • Can be cause of bad breath
  • ***Only in people with intact palatine tonsils
     

12

Adenoiditis

  • enlarged/inflamed palatine tonsils
  • breathing difficulty from blocked Chonae
  • chronic blockage of auditory tube --> middle ear infections--> hearing loss

13

Pharyngeal constrictors

  • Superior
  • Middle
  • Inferior

14

Pharyngeal Raphe

  • Midline meeting of pharyngeal constrictors
  • origin of pharyngeal constrictors 

15

16

Longitudinal Muscles of Pharynx

  • Stylopharyngeus
  • Palatopharyngeus
    • depresses soft palate and narrows pharyngeal inlet
  • Salpingopharyngeus
    • Salpinx = tube (from auditory tube)

17

Innervation of Pharynx

  • Motor
    • Vagus Nerve
    • EXCEPT stylopharyngeus...CN IX (3rd arch muscle)
  • Sensory
    • Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX)
  • both types of nerves come from pharyngeal plexus

18

Tensor Veli Palatini (Function, Innervation, muscle arch origin)

  • Closes off oral cavity from nasopharynx when swallowing
  • opens auditory tube when yawn/swallow
  • Innervation: V3
  • 1st arch muscle

19

Levator Veli Palatini

  • Elevates soft palate
  • closes off nasopharynx from oral cavity
  • opens auditory tube
  • Innervation: Vagus

20

Palatoglossus Muscle

  • Makes palatoglossal arch when covered with mucosa
  • Function: depresses soft palate and narrows pharyngeal inelt

21

Laryngeal Folds

  • Vestibular Fold - false vocal cord
  • Vocal fold - true vocal fold
    • contains vocal ligament

22

Spaces of Interior of Larynx

  • Vestibule
    • entrance to larynx
    • superior to vestibular folds
  • Ventricle
    • space between vestibular and vocal folds
  • Glottis
    • vocal cords and space between true vocal cods

23

Laryngeal Cartilages

  • Thyroid Cartilage
    • Laryngeal prominence
    • Thyroid notch
    • connected to hyoid by thyrohyoid membrane
  • Cricoid Cartilage
    • connected to thyroid by cricothyroid membrane

24

Cricothyrotomy

  • establish emergency airway if other methods dont work
  • cut made through skin and cricothyroid membrane

25

Arytenoid cartilages

  • 2 of them
  • have anterior muscular process and anterior vocal process
  • Vocal cords run from vocal process  to inner surface of thyroid cartilage

26

Epiglottis

  • Seperated from tongue via valleculae
  • connects to arytenoid cartilage via aryepiglottic folds

27

Larynx structures Picture

28


Laryngeal Membranes Picture

29

Functions of Larynx

 

  1. Close laryngeal Inlet to keep food out of airway
  2. Move vocal cords

30


Laryngeal Muscles

  • Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscles
    • open airway
    • abduct vocal cords*****
  • Oblique and transverse arytenoid muscles
    • close airway, move vocal cords together
  • Cricothyroid - stretch vocal cords
  • Lateral cricoarytenoid  - adduct cords
  • Vocalis - fine adjustments of vocal cords

31

CN IX Glossopharyngeal

32

Innervation of Larynx

  • Sensory: Vagus
    • Internal laryngeal  - above vocal cords
    • Recurrent laryngeal - below vocal cords
  • Motor: Vagus
    • EXCEPT cricothyroid which gets from recrurrent laryngeal
  • Visceral Sensory - CN IX
  •  

33

Vagus Nerve Damage

  • Recurrent Laryngeal Damage - hoarseness, lose of voice
  • Internal laryngeal Damage -  loss of cough reflex