Pharynx and Larynx Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Pharynx and Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharynx and Larynx Deck (33):
1

Pharynx Function

  • Directs food into esophagus
  • conducts air into Larynx and Trachea 

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2

Three partsof Pharynx

  • Nasopharynx
    • Respiratory part of pharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharyx

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3

Ostium of the Auditory Tube (Pharyngotympanic/Eustacian Tube)

  • connects middle ear to nasopharynx
  • Torus Tubarius  - carilagenous portion Pharyngotympanic tube that extends into nasopharynx

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4

Torus Tubarius

  • Carilagenous portion of Pharyngotympanic Tube that extends into Nasopharynx

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5

Characteristics and Components of Oropharynx

  • Palatoglossal arch seperates oropharynx from oral cavity
  • Lingual Tonsil
  • Palatine Tonsil 
  • Valleculae
     

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6

Origin of superior constrictor

  • Pterygomandibular raphe
  • common origin with buccinator muscle

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7

Piriform Recess (location)

  • outpouching lateral to opening of larynx
  • Foreign objects can get lodged here

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8

Tonsils are collections of what type of tissue?

  • Lymphoid 

9

Types of Tonsils

  • Pharyngeal tonsils
    • at roof of nasopharynx
  • Tubal tonsils
    • ostium of auditory tube
  • Lingual tonsils
    • Posterior 1/3 of tongue 
  • Palatine tonsils 
    • Between pillars of Glossopharyngeal Arches
    • tonsillar fossa 

10

Tonsillectomies (removing which tonsil and risks)

  • removing palatine tonsils
  • Risks
    • highly vascularized --> excessive bleeding
    • can damage glossopharyngeal nerve (lingual branch)
      • would lead to altered sensation from posterior 1/3 tongue

11

Tonsil Stones

  • Calcified collections of cellular debris, bacteria, etc
  • Can be cause of bad breath
  • ***Only in people with intact palatine tonsils
     

12

Adenoiditis

  • enlarged/inflamed palatine tonsils
  • breathing difficulty from blocked Chonae
  • chronic blockage of auditory tube --> middle ear infections--> hearing loss

13

Pharyngeal constrictors

  • Superior
  • Middle
  • Inferior

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14

Pharyngeal Raphe

  • Midline meeting of pharyngeal constrictors
  • origin of pharyngeal constrictors 

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15

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16

Longitudinal Muscles of Pharynx

  • Stylopharyngeus
  • Palatopharyngeus
    • depresses soft palate and narrows pharyngeal inlet
  • Salpingopharyngeus
    • Salpinx = tube (from auditory tube)

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17

Innervation of Pharynx

  • Motor
    • Vagus Nerve
    • EXCEPT stylopharyngeus...CN IX (3rd arch muscle)
  • Sensory
    • Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX)
  • both types of nerves come from pharyngeal plexus

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18

Tensor Veli Palatini (Function, Innervation, muscle arch origin)

  • Closes off oral cavity from nasopharynx when swallowing
  • opens auditory tube when yawn/swallow
  • Innervation: V3
  • 1st arch muscle

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19

Levator Veli Palatini

  • Elevates soft palate
  • closes off nasopharynx from oral cavity
  • opens auditory tube
  • Innervation: Vagus

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20

Palatoglossus Muscle

  • Makes palatoglossal arch when covered with mucosa
  • Function: depresses soft palate and narrows pharyngeal inelt

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21

Laryngeal Folds

  • Vestibular Fold - false vocal cord
  • Vocal fold - true vocal fold
    • contains vocal ligament

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22

Spaces of Interior of Larynx

  • Vestibule
    • entrance to larynx
    • superior to vestibular folds
  • Ventricle
    • space between vestibular and vocal folds
  • Glottis
    • vocal cords and space between true vocal cods

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23

Laryngeal Cartilages

  • Thyroid Cartilage
    • Laryngeal prominence
    • Thyroid notch
    • connected to hyoid by thyrohyoid membrane
  • Cricoid Cartilage
    • connected to thyroid by cricothyroid membrane

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24

Cricothyrotomy

  • establish emergency airway if other methods dont work
  • cut made through skin and cricothyroid membrane

25

Arytenoid cartilages

  • 2 of them
  • have anterior muscular process and anterior vocal process
  • Vocal cords run from vocal process  to inner surface of thyroid cartilage

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26

Epiglottis

  • Seperated from tongue via valleculae
  • connects to arytenoid cartilage via aryepiglottic folds

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27

Larynx structures Picture

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28


Laryngeal Membranes Picture

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29

Functions of Larynx

 

  1. Close laryngeal Inlet to keep food out of airway
  2. Move vocal cords

30


Laryngeal Muscles

  • Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscles
    • open airway
    • abduct vocal cords*****
  • Oblique and transverse arytenoid muscles
    • close airway, move vocal cords together
  • Cricothyroid - stretch vocal cords
  • Lateral cricoarytenoid  - adduct cords
  • Vocalis - fine adjustments of vocal cords

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31

CN IX Glossopharyngeal

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32

Innervation of Larynx

  • Sensory: Vagus
    • Internal laryngeal  - above vocal cords
    • Recurrent laryngeal - below vocal cords
  • Motor: Vagus
    • EXCEPT cricothyroid which gets from recrurrent laryngeal
  • Visceral Sensory - CN IX
  •  

33

Vagus Nerve Damage

  • Recurrent Laryngeal Damage - hoarseness, lose of voice
  • Internal laryngeal Damage -  loss of cough reflex