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Flashcards in Pharynx and Larynx Deck (27):
1

What are the 3 pharyngeal regions?

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

2

What begins and ends the nasopharynx? What are the landmarks of the nasopharynx?

Begins from nasal choana to the tip of uvula
-Opening of Eustachian tube
-Salpingopharyngeal fold
-Pharyngeal tonsils
-Tubal tonsils

3

What begins and ends the oropharynx? What are the landmarks of the oropharynx?

From the palatoglossal arch, soft palate, and uvula to the epiglottis
-Palatopharyngeal arch
-Tonsillar fossa
-Palatine tonsils
-lingual tonsils

4

What begins and ends the laryngopharynx?What are the landmarks of the laryngopharynx?

From the level of C4 to the C6 vertebrae (this is also the area that is posterior to the larynx)
-Epiglottis
-Aryepiglottic folds
-piriform recess

5

What are the 3 external circular constrictor muscles of the pharynx and what are the 3 internal longitudinal suspensory muscles?

External: Superior, middle, and inferior
Internal: Stylopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus

6

What nerve supplies the external constrictor muscles of the pharynx?

The pharyngeal plexus (formed by pharyngeal sensory branches of glossopharyngeal, motor branches from the vagus, and sympathetic branches from the superior cervical ganglion?

7

What is the action of the external constrictor muscles?

Function to constrict pharynx during swallowing and propel food into the esophagus

8

What nerve supplies each of the internal suspensory muscles of the pharynx?

The glossopharyngeal nerve supplies the stylopharyngeus muscle
Palatopharyngeus and salpinopharyngeus muscles are supplied by the pharyngeal plexus of nerves

9

What is the action of the internal suspensory muscles of the pharynx?

Function to elevate the larynx during speaking and raise and expand the pharynx during swallowing

10

What are the 3 soft palate muscles?

Tensor veli palatine
Levator veli palitini
Musculus uvulae muscle

11

What is the nerve supply of the 3 soft palate muscles?

Tensor veli palatine is supplied by the mandibular division of the trigeminal
Levator veli palitini and the musculus uvulae muscles are supplied by the pharyngeal plexus

12

What is the action of the soft palate muscles?

They tense and elevate the velum and uvula during swallowing and yawning

13

What are the 3 stages of swallowing?

1. Volunary stage, when bolus is pushed from mouth ito oropharynx by tongue
2. Involuntary and rapid. Internal and external muscles of pharynx move bolus into esophagus. Bolus is prevented from moving into nasopharynx by the soft palate muscles. The thyroid cartilage is raised, causing epiglottis to fold over the larynx, deepening the aryepiglottic folds, providing channels to guide bolus to esophagus.
3. Squeezes bolus from laryngopharynx into the esophagus through the action of the inferior constrictor muscles

14

What are the functions of the larynx?

Respiratory
Phonatory
Reflexsive and voluntary sphincteric function (breath holding, preventing aspiration)

15

What are the 3 regions of the larynx? What are their borders?

Upper laryngeal cavity - from tip of epiglottis to vestibular folds
Middle laryngeal cavity - from vestibular folds to the vocal folds
Lower laryngeal cavity - from the true vocal cords to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage

16

What are the landmarks of the upper laryngeal cavity?

Aditus
Epiglottis
Aryepiglottic folds
Arytenoid cartilages
Vestibular folds or the false vocal cords
Vestibule (area between the aditus and the vestibular folds)

17

What are the landmarks of the middle laryngeal cavity?

Vocal folds
Ventricles
Glottis
Rima glottis

18

What are the 3 unpaired cartilages of the laryngeal skeleton?

Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
Epiglottic cartilage

19

What are the landmarks of the thyroid cartilage? (6)

Laminae
External laryngeal prominence
Thyroid angle
Superior thyroid notch
Superior horns or cornua
Inferior horns or cornua

20

What are the landmarks of the cricoid cartilage? (5)

Arch
lamina
cricothyroid articular surface
cricoarytenoid articular surface

21

What are the landmarks of the epiglottic cartilage? (2)

Stalk
Epiglottic plate

22

What are the paired cartilages of the laryngeal skeleton?

Arytenoid cartilage
(landmarks are the base, apex, vocal process, muscular process)
Cuneiform cartilages
Corniculate cartilages

23

What are the 2 types laryngeal articulations?

Synovial articulations (e.g. the cricothyroid joint and the cricoarytenoid joint)
Membranous articulations (extrinsic membranes and intrinsic membranes)

24

What are the 2 membranous articulation types?

Extrinsic membranes (thyrohyoid membrane and cricotracheal membrane)
Intrinsic membranes (quadrangular membrane, cricothyroid membrane, median cricothyroid ligament)

25

What are the two types of laryngeal muscles, and what are in those groups?

Extrinsic (supra and infrahyoid muscles)
Intrinsic
-sphincteric group = aryepiglottic, oblique arytenoids, thyroepiglottic, thyroarytenoid

26

What muscles are in the respiratory and phonatory groups?

Posterior cricoarytenoid
Lateral cricoarytenoid
Transverse arytenoid
Cricothyroid
Thyroarytenoid
Vocalis

27

What is the nerve supply of the larynx?

Superior laryngeal nerve
-external branch is motor to the cricothyroid (runs with superior thyroid)
-internal branch is sensory to upper and middle regions of the laryngeal cavity
Inferior (recurrent) laryngeal nerve
-motor to remaining intrinsic muscles. Sensory to lower laryngeal cavity