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Flashcards in Philosophy Deck (36)
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What other two ancient cities do they ultimately represent?

Alexandria: Athens
Antioch: Jerusalem


To what major heresies did Alexandria fall prey to and why?

Alexandria: "fully God" heresies originated in the platonic ideal
-Docitism (to appear/seem): the divine Christ only seemed to be human and die: God cannot die and doesn't stoop to the flesh (Phil. 2:8-Christ being found in appearance as a man)
-Modalistic Monarchianism (Sabellians): God's names are just different roles or consumes, they are not three distinct persons otherwise there would be more than one God (John 10:30-"I and the father are one"), Christ is just an emanation of God and a mediator


To what major heresies did Antioch fall prey to and why?

Antioch: "fully man" ideas originated in an importance of monotheism
-A Logoi (against logos): hated the Greek tradition invading Bible, Christ was a prophet not God, moral unity not divine unity
-Ebionites: Jesus was a man anointed to be the messiah, he was a specially blessed prophet
-Dynamic Monarchianism (Adoptionists): at birth of baptism, God adopted human Christ as his son and gave him divine power (dynamis)


What two still more ancient "cities" gave rise to philosophy?

Ionia and Italy


How did the philosophical habit of thought differ from the Homeric mentality?

-Homeric: fantastical, poetic, gods, mythology, battle it out
-philosophical: natural causes, reason, material world, rational discussions


What were the three basic ontologies of the pre-Socratics?

Ionian (Corporeal Monism: All reality can be reduced to one material thing)
-Italians (Incorporeal Monism: All reality can be reduced to one immaterial thing)
-Athenians (Corporeal Pluralism: All reality can be reduced to many material things)


To what substance did each of the four Ionian philosophers reduce reality?

-Thales: reduced everything to water
-Anaxamander: reduced everything to 'the boundless'
-Anaximenes: reduced everything down to air
-Hereclitus: reduced everything down to fire


Which Pythagorean themes influenced Plato?

-Dualism:The body is evil and the soul is good
a.k.a. the “transmigration of souls”
There has been a certain amount of souls since the beginning of the world, they just keep moving from being to being.
-Immortality of the soul


What were the maxims that represented the thoughts of (Ionian) Heraclitus and (Italian) Parmenides?

Heraclitus: “You never step in the same river twice.”
Parmenides: “Whatever is, is. All else is illusory.”


What term is Heraclitus’ greatest philosophical legacy?



How does Plato’s ontology solve the impasse between them (Heraclitus and Parmenides)?

Plato combined the ideas of being (Parmenides) and becoming (Heraclitus)
The forms are being they are always the same
Physical world is becoming always changing, but a reflection of forms


Which ancient Athenian most influenced Socrates and how?

Socrates was influenced by Anaxagoras and his idea that there is a mind at work in the universe that directs the movement of the “seeds” (nous).


What are the other two Athenian corporeal pluralists and what were their key beliefs?

Love and strife (hate) either pull the elements together or push them apart
*First to theorize the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water)
Fun fact: jumped into a volcano
*The world is made up of atoms
Every atom has a different shape
The four elements are made of the same basic stuff, but are just shaped differently.
There is no mind at work, atoms just randomly collide


For what are Protagoras and Diogenes best remembered?

Protagoras: (sophist)
“Homo mensura:" man the measure
Had a very high view of man
There is no measure above man
Man defines right and wrong, there is no higher standard
Diogenes: (cynic)
Holding a lantern looking for an honest man
The ring of Gyges (think hobbit): If you were invisible would you do good or evil?
Argued that most men just want the world’s approval
His life goal was to live virtuously


Which seven beliefs did Plato oppose?

Empiricism: knowledge comes from observation
Hedonism: the idea that pleasure is the highest goal in life
Mechanism: the idea that the world is a mechanism (Democritus)
Relativism: sophists


What is Plato’s ontology? Aristotle’s? Which is stronger?

The forms: Perfect standard, Base/primary, Eternal ideas, The physical world is a shadow of the forms
Particulars: Form
What makes a thing what it is
Qualities in an object that make it what it is and that are similar to other objects in the same category
People come first, there are no eternal ideas defining us
The stronger ontology is from Plato
The idea of the forms: we are ideas in the mind of God


What is Plato’s theory of knowledge? Aristotle’s? Which is stronger?

Plato: Recollect
You recollect the forms because your soul came from the world of the forms
The forms are eternal, perfect and unchanging
We can only know things that don’t change
Inductive reasoning (the sun rises every day therefore it will rise tomorrow)
Particular to universal
Aristotle has a stronger theory of knowledge because Plato’s is a bit of a stretch


What are Plato’s three dualisms?

The dualism between being and becoming (the forms and the physical world)
Knowledge (epistemological)
Knowledge vs. opinion (belief)
Body and soul dualism


What are Aristotle’s four causes?

Material cause: stuff it’s made out of (the stone of the statue)
Formal cause: the essence-who the statue is modeled after/ the blueprint
Efficient cause: agent or actor (person who carves a statue)
Final cause: telos/ purpose (what it is made to do)


What two skeptical schools of thought arose in Greece after Plato and Aristotle?

Arose because the two greatest thinkers disagreed with each other
Epicureanism: pleasure is the highest good, don't pursue virtue, Avoid pain at all costs! Live a simple life
Stoicism: man is above all else, don't let externals affect you, reject appetites, virtue is its own reward, well-ordered and unaffected by the wheel of fortune


What key beliefs about “the good life” did each hold?

Pleasure was the highest good
But don’t go crazy in your pleasure-seeking because you want to avoid pain
A simple life with plenty of friends and good food
Well-ordered and virtuous
Resists the urge to be affected by external pain and pleasure
The universe falls apart (is destroyed) and comes back together over and over again in the same way


How did the Stoics appropriate “logos” into their view of the universe?

Logos it the pattern that the universe follows (the clock-work of the universe) See above


How did Christianity fulfill ancient philosophy, confirming its strong, and strengthening its weak elements?

Both eternal reality and the physical world have value.
You are not a soul that happens to have a body, but you have both on purpose
Christ comes and this expresses that both the body and soul have value, he redeemed the physical


The names of the two cities and what school of thought flourished in each?

Alexandria: Platonic thought
Antioch: Jewish thought


How did Justin Martyr explain the relationship between ancient philosophy and Christianity?

Thinks that the Greeks prepared the world for Christ and followed the logos without knowing his name, all truth is God's truth, Socrates was a Christian
Thought that the old testament explicitly influenced Plato


Which heresy did the Council of Nicaea address and what were its seven points?

Seven points:
1) God alone is eternal
2) God creates voluntarily vs outpouring
3) God alone is “un-begotten” (not the Trinity)
4) To “beget” means to create
5) God created an independent substance that He used to create all else (namely the Son of God) "first born over all creation," "through him all things were created"
6) Christ is a perfect creature (logos)
7) The incarnation involves unification of the human body with the logos


Which young theologian led the cause of orthodoxy “against the world”?

Athanasius (contra mundum)


Who punched Arius in the face at the Council of Nicaea?

Saint Nicholas


What were the three key affirmations and four negations of Chalcedon (about Christ)?

Affirmations: Christ is fully God; fully man; one person but two natures
Negations: without confusion, change, division, separation


What are the 5 types of faith Augustin describes?

-To think with assent
Have an open mind and a teachable spirit
-Provisional acceptance
Hypothetical agreement
-Acceptance of authority
Believing authority is part of proper knowledge
You have to believe in order to understand
-Compulsion of the truth
The majority of the evidence convinces you
“beyond a reasonable doubt”
98% sure
-Surrender of the will
“I have totally committed my life to this belief.”