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Flashcards in Philosophy and Politics of the Time Period Deck (51):
1

The first large factories were in the _______ industry during the Industrial Revolution.

Textile.
England led the Industrial Revolution, specifically with its factories in the textile industry. Samuel Slater memorized the plans for one of the English machines and reproduced one in Rhode Island; before long, textile mills spread across New England. Textiles were the first large scale factory-produced product in the United States.

2

The Church of _______ was also known as the Anglican Church.

England.

3

Henry Clay developed a national plan called the ________ System which involved domestic improvements using federal funds, a protective tariff, and a national bank.

American.
A protective tariff, means high taxes on foreign goods imported to the United States.

4

President Andrew Jackson was known for his strong desire to move the Indians off of US land, and supported the forced removal of the Cherokees out of _______.

Georgia.
President Andrew Jackson allowed the Cherokees to be forcefully removed from Georgia in what became the Trail of Tears, despite a ruling by the Supreme Court which stated that the Cherokee Nation was a sovereign political entity.

5

The Supreme Court established that the ________ Nation was a sovereign political entity within Georgia.

Cherokee.
The Supreme Court ruled in Worcester vs Georgia that the Cherokee Nation was a sovereign political entity; nonetheless, the Cherokees were forcefully removed in what was known as the Trail of Tears.

6

Soon after President Andrew Jackson passed the Specie Circular, the United States suffered an economic ________.

Downturn.
Andrew Jackson issued the Specie Circular, requiring gold or silver as payment for federal land--soon after he did this, there was a depression.

7

Most of the Indians in the United States died not because of warfare, but through ________ carried by settlers from Europe.

Diseases.
Europeans brought diseases which the Indians had no defense against, often unknowingly. This wiped out more Native Americans than anything else the Europeans did.

8

The Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole Indians were known as the Five _________ Native American Tribes.

Civilized.

9

The Five _______ was the Iroquois confederacy formed by the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca tribes.

Nations.

10

The main reason the Secretary of State purchased ______ was to foster good relations with Russia.

Alaska.
No one at that time knew that Alaska was an abundant source of natural resources.

11

The bloodiest, and probably the most famous slave insurrection was led by __________.

Nat Turner.
Nat Turner led a revolt--he and about twenty of his followers were caught and executed.

12

Many leaders of the women's rights movement took a leading role in the ___________ movement.

Antislavery.
Many leaders of the Women's Rights Movement started taking part in the abolition, or antislavery movement. This was because recognition of their own plight gave them sympathy for the plight of Black slaves.

13

New Harmony, Nashoba, Oneida, and Amana are all names of _______ communities.

Utopian.
These were utopian communities--they believed that people and society could be perfected, and a perfect community could be created.

14

In the early 1800's, many immigrants from Ireland and Germany came to the United States, many of them ________.

Catholic.

15

Between 1815 and 1837, population growth was due more to immigration than native _____.

Birth.
After the conflicts between France and England, many immigrants, especially from Ireland and Germany, came to the United States. Immigration resulted in most of the population growth of that time period.

16

The primary reason for purchasing ______ was to strengthen ties with Russia.

Alaska.
The United States wanted to "reward" Russia for their friendly stance during the Civil War.

17

The government helped finance the construction of railroads in the United States through the sale of _____.

Bonds.
The government helped finance the construction of railroads by selling federal bonds. Initially, railroads were funded by private investors, but the federal government later helped fund them, as well as provide land grants.

18

The Spanish authorities closed ___________ to American traffic, which many Americans depended on to move their agricultural products. This resulted in the Louisiana Purchase.

New Orleans.
President Jefferson sent a delegation to France to try to buy New Orleans from Napoleon; what resulted was the Louisiana Purchase, in which the US got much more that just New Orleans.

19

The Election of ____ was significant because political parties exchanged control of the Presidency without violence.

1800.
In the Election of 1800, the Republicans defeated the Federalists and removed Federalist John Adams from office. In Europe, exchange of power was typically associated with much bloodshed.

20

During the Revolutionary War, Americans hoped for European help, because they knew that France wanted to weaken _____________'s power.

Great Britain.
Americans knew that France would jump at an opportunity to weaken England. The French were not sympathetic to the American cause of freedom.

21

Individualism is a philosophical doctrine holding that the interests of the individual should take __________ over the interests of the public good--i.e. the state or a social group's interests.

Precedence.

22

At the beginning of the Civil War, the South had the major advantage of experienced military __________.

Leadership.
The South had the experienced military leadership. The north had superior population, resources, and railroad transportation.

23

During the Civil War, the South thought the _______ needed their cotton exports, and would come to their aid.

British.
The South thought that the British needed Southern cotton so bad that they would help them in the Civil War. The North was blockading the Southern coast to keep them from making money from exports.

24

The Emancipation Proclamation did not physically free the slaves in the South, but it did turn the _______ against the South.

British.
The Emancipation Proclamation turned the British against the South. At the time, there was an antislavery movement in Britain, and the Proclamation turned the Civil War into a war against slavery.

25

Thomas Jefferson opposed Alexander Hamilton's idea of a national bank because he believed that the Federal government should not have control over the nation's _______.

Economy.
Thomas Jefferson strictly opposed the national bank, believing in keeping federal power to a minimum.

26

The United States bought the Gadsden Purchase from ______ to allow a transcontinental railroad.

Mexico.
The US purchased the Gadsden Purchase for that purpose--to create a railroad which spanned the United States.

27

The Articles of Confederation did not allow the federal government to collect _____.

Taxes.
The Articles of Confederation did not allow the government to levy taxes. This was because the Americans hated the taxes that England had abused them with.

28

____'s Rebellion occurred because the Massachusetts state government refused to provide tax relief.

Shay.
After the American Revolution farmers throughout Massachusetts (and elsewhere in the newly created United States) were deep in debt and the country experienced a period of high inflation. The Massachusetts Assembly raised taxes in 1786, ignoring these economic realities and this resulted in a farmers rebellion led by Daniel Shays. Farmers took up arms, freed prisoners from debtor's prisons and began to spread the rebellion to other New England states. Shays' rebellion ended after a private army paid for by the Governor of Massachusetts intervened and taxes were reduced.

29

The idea of Manifest _______ showed that Americans wanted to expand the United States, and spread their way of thinking and living.

Destiny.
The idea of Manifest Destiny, which said that the US would span from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, showed that Americans wanted to expand.

30

_______ v. Madison was a pivotal case in which the Supreme Court declared an act of Congress unconstitutional.

Marbury.
Marbury vs Madison was significant because the Supreme Court established its power over Congress by declaring an act unconstitutional.

31

In the 1820s and 1830s, a new notion of the time was that people were shaped by their ____________. As a result, reformers pushed for social deviants and insane people to be isolated in institutions and reformed.

Surroundings.
A change in the way that social deviants were dealt with was the creation of institutions, whether it be prisons for convicts, or asylums for the insane. This was a new notion--to isolate these people in institutions and attempt to rehabilitate them.

32

The ______ system of prison design, known also as the congregate system, became the basis for most prisons to be constructed in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Auburn.
The Auburn style prison is based upon a design of inside cells divided into cell blocks. Unlike the Pennsylvania system, the cells were intended only for sleeping and inmates would congregate for work, mess, and exercise activities.

33

During Supreme Court Justice _____________'s term, he ruled many times in ways which strengthened the Federal government.

John Marshall.
Marshall often ruled in favor of the federal government over the rights of states.

34

_____________ built the first successful cotton-spinning mill in the United States.

Samuel Slater.
Slater did this with machine plans he memorized in England.

35

___________ was excellent for textile mills because it had running water, plenty of investment capital, and cheap labor.

New England.
New England however, did not have the natural resources, such as cotton, nearby.

36

Lincoln's famous phrase "a house divided against itself cannot stand" was in reference to the country's division over the issue of _______.

Slavery.
His phrase referenced the division over slavery. Lincoln was saying that a consensus needed to be reached on this issue.

37

The Dred Scott Case ruled on the constitutionality of the ________ Compromise, that slaves could not sue, and that Congress could not regulate slavery in territories.

Missouri.
The Dred Scott case included those three decisions. It also said that living in a free state did not make a slave free.

38

The ___________ in the Election of 1860 felt that slavery should be contained--only the states which currently allowed it could keep it, and no new states should allow slavery.

Republicans.
The Republicans wanted to halt the spread of slavery; they did not intend to interfere with slavery where it already existed. Abraham Lincoln was their candidate.

39

_______________ are known for their exploration of the Midwest and Far West.

Lewis and Clark.
Lewis and Clark explored the Midwest and Far West, starting on the Missouri River out of St. Louis.

40

Virginia's main crop was _______.

Tobacco.
Virginia was a huge producer of tobacco. Cotton was produced in southern states such as South Carolina and Georgia.

41

In some special cases, the ____ paid the colonial Governor directly, which angered the colonists.

King.
By paying the colonial governor of a royal colony directly, instead of letting the colonists pay him, the king undermined the colonists' power over the governor.

42

After the Civil War, _____________ developed as a replacement for slave labor.

Sharecropping.
Sharecropping replaced slave labor. Blacks often ended up working for their former masters, working a plot of land in return for a portion of the crops.

43

The _____ Codes were laws passed in the South by White southerners who wanted to restrict ex-slaves, ensuring that they still worked as their laborers.

Black.
The Black Codes were passed in 1865, severely restricting black freedom. In 1866, the Black Codes were suspended by the Federal Government.

44

As a result of the Mexican War, the US gained __________ ports on the west coast.

California.
At the end of the Mexican War, Mexico gave up the Southwest, from New Mexico to California. The United States had already taken in Texas as a state before the Mexican War.

45

The ______ Proviso, signed by the House of Representatives during the Mexican War, attempted to ban slavery in any new territories that would be gained from the war.

Wilmot.
This bill never passed through the senate due to a lack of Southern support. Southerners felt like they were being treated unfairly by this attempt to ban slavery in the future southwest territories, which would have made them a minority in the Senate. This matter was unresolved until the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which relied on popular sovereignty to decide the slavery issue in each new state.

46

President _______ vetoed Congress's attempt to recharter the Bank of the United States. He had several reasons he stated for doing this, but he did not believe that the bank was unconstitutional.

Jackson.
President Jackson did not say the bank was unconstitutional. His reasons included foreign influence in the bank and the fact that the bank was tied to the wealthy.

47

The ____ political party was cautious about western expansion of the United States.

Whig.

48

Many __________ denominations ended up splitting up into northern and southern denominations over the issue of slavery.

Protestant.
Many Protestant denominations, including Presbyterian, Baptists, and Methodists, ended up splitting into a northern and a southern denomination over the issue of whether slavery was allowed by the Bible.

49

Henry Clay was a well known member of the ____ political party.

Whig.
Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were two famous members of the Whig party.

50

Thomas Jefferson and _____________ were members of the Republican party.

James Madison.
They were members of the Republican party, and opposed the Federalist party. Republicans believed in a small central government which did not have any more power than was absolutely necessary. Republicans wanted minimum government intervention and opposed a national bank.

51

Alexander Hamilton was a member of the __________ political party.

Federalist.
Hamilton believed in a strong federal government with broad powers. One of his biggest ideas was the establishment of a Bank of the United States.