___, which in Ancient Greek means "love of wisdom," is the study of the truths and principles of existence, knowledge, or conduct.
Which Ancient Greek philosopher was the teacher of Plato and was condemned to death by the citizens of Athens, who found him guilty of denying the existence of the gods and of corrupting the minds of the Athenian youth?
He is known for the Socratic method of teaching, which proceeds by question and answer instead of by lecture. He is seen as one of the founders of Western philosophy, particularly as it relates to ethics and logic.
Which Ancient Greek philosopher founded the Academy in Athens, the Western world's first institution for higher learning, and wrote the philosophical dialogues The Republic and the Symposium?
One of the most important figures in Western science and philosophy, he was a student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle.
Which Ancient Greek philosopher from the 4th century B.C. is best known for his surviving treatises that include Metaphysics, Politics, Poetics, and Physics?
One of the most important figures in Western philosophy, he wrote on many subjects and his writings and philosophy continue to be studied today. He was a student of Plato and served as tutor to Alexander the Great.
Which Chinese thinker from the 6th century B.C. founded a school of philosophy bearing his name that presents a code of ethics stressing ancestor worship, family relationships, learning, and loyalty?
His teachings evolved into Confucianism, which still governs Chinese culture today.
Which 17th-century English philosopher, known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism," influenced the American Founding Fathers by criticizing the notion of monarchs' divine right and arguing that governments should depend on the consent of the governed?
John Locke (1632-1704)
He also claimed that the human mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa) at birth and until experience eventually begins to write on it.
A ___ is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural practices, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.
A belief system is polytheistic if it has more than one deity.
From what anthropologists have been able to determine, during prehistory humans were polytheistic, attributing divine attributes to the weather, fertility, and the like.
___ is the belief that various gods and spirits inhabit natural objects and phenomena.
At its core, animism is polytheistic and formed the belief system of early mankind.
___ is belief in the existence of a God who does not intervene in the universe.
___ is a collection of legendary stories associated with or belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition. These stories are usually concerned with deities and explain natural phenomena.
In Greek mythology, what were the Primordial Deities?
Original gods from which all other gods and entities descend
- Chaos, Ouranos, Nyx, Gaia, Eros
- They include the protogenoi, the First Born, who descended from Chaos
- They are often associated with basic concepts, such as love, or with the underworld or the mystery of fertility
In Greek mythology, who were the powerful deities who ascended during the mythical Golden Age?
- Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, Eos, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus
- Ruled by Kronos and Rhea
- Kronos was overthrown by his son, Zeus, which led to the rule of the more well-known Olympians
- Fought the Olympians, the younger generation of gods, but were defeated and imprisoned in the depths of the Earth (Tartarus)
Who were the Ancient Greeks' main deities, who comprised the main gods cast in Homer's epics and later Greek plays?
- Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia
- Lived atop Mt. Olympus
- 12 in total, though conflicting lists emerge from different historical sources
In the context of Greek mythology, what is the Underworld?
The Underworld is Hades' domain, a realm beneath the Earth filled with dead souls. It includes Tartarus, five rivers, and Cerberus, a three-headed hound.
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of time ?
- Roman name: Saturn
- Leader of the Titans
- Son of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus)
- Overthrew Ouranos and prophesied to be overthrown by his own son, Zeus
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of sky and thunder?
- Roman name: Jupiter
- Ruler of all Olympian gods
- Married to Hera
- Brother of Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of the sea and earthquakes?
- Roman name: Neptune
- Married to Amphitrite
- Brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera, et al.
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of the Underworld?
- Roman name: Pluto
- brother of Zeus and Poseidon
- married to Persephone
- wields the helm of darkness, which grants invisibility
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of women and marriage?
- Roman name: Juno
- Zeus' wife, mother of the gods
- Jealous and bitter towards Zeus' other lovers
- Despised Heracles (Hercules)
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of wisdom, peace, and strategy?
- Roman name: Minerva
- Wise daughter of Zeus
- Has an owl, helmet, shield, lance
- Born out of Zeus' forehead
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of light, sun, archery, music, and poetry?
- Roman names: Apollo, Phoebus
- Widely worshipped son of Zeus
- Holds a bow and arrow
- Had many male and female lovers
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of hunting, virginity, and the moon?
- Roman name: Diana
- Twin sister of Apollo; also had a bow and arrow
- Took a vow of chastity
- Known for hunting with hounds, stags, a chariot, and nymphs
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of love and beauty?
- Roman name: Venus
- Born of Uranus' severed genitals, rose from the sea foam
- Married to Hephaestus; had affairs with Ares, Adonis, Hermes
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of trade, travelers, sports, and boundaries?
- Roman name: Mercury
- Messenger of the gods, as well as guide to the Underworld
- Wore a winged cap and winged sandals
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of war?
- Roman name: Mars
- Violent god, wore a shield and helmet
- Son of Zeus and Hera
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of lust, attraction, and love?
- Roman name: Cupid
- Son of Aphrodite and Ares
- Embodiment of erotic love
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of spring and fertility?
- Roman name: Persipina
- Queen of the Underworld
- Daughter of Demeter and Zeus
- Abducted by Hades to be his queen; later tricked into being forced to go to the Underworld for four months every year
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of grain, fertility, and pureness?
- Roman name: Ceres
- Preserver of marriage and law
- Nourisher of crops
- Mother to Persephone
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the Titan who held the heaven above the Earth for eternity?
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of existence?
- The original state of existence that gave life to all gods
- Gaia was created from his dark void, which led to the birth of the Titans
In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the Titan who created the first man from clay?
- Son of Iapetus and Themis, brother of Atlas
- Punished by Zeus for stealing his fire and giving it to the mortals
In Greco-Roman mythology, who were the Muses?
Guardian spirits of creative powers and artistic disciplines of Ancient Greece
- Calliope, Clio, Erato, Euterpe, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, Urania
- Descended from Zeus and Mnemosyne, titaness who was the personification of memory
- Have been evoked from the Renaissance up to the present day in the Western canon
What was the principal Ancient Egyptian religious text?
The principal religious text of Ancient Egypt was the Book of the Dead, which was a guide to navigating the afterlife. Under Egyptian polytheistic theology, life after death was of paramount concern. Bodies were buried with grave goods and mummified to ensure safe passage into the afterlife.
The sun god ___ was the primary god in the Ancient Egyptian pantheon.
In Ancient Egypt, the pharaoh was Ra incarnate on Earth, and he oversaw a priestly caste that paid homage to gods such as Thoth, Osiris, and Ptah.
Which religion asserts a single Supreme Being called Brahman, but incorporates the worship of several gods that represent Brahman's different aspects?
- Approximately 1 billion people practice Hinduism, the majority residing in the Indian subcontinent
- Hinduism can be traced back as far as 2000 B.C.
- It is unique among major world religions in that it has no single founder
Which body of texts comprises the oldest scriptures of Hinduism?
- Four collections of verses: Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda
- Other important Hindu texts include the Mahabharata and the Ramayana
According to Hinduism, what are the four purposes or aims in life?
Dharma – duty (generally meaning one's vocation)
Artha – wealth (the pursuit of worldly success)
Kama – physical pleasure
Moksha – the most important: enlightenment, liberation, union with God
- A nontheistic religion founded in the 6th century B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama (aka Buddha)
- Gautama was a prince born in what is now Nepal, and was regarded as the Supreme Buddha
- "Buddha" signifies "enlightened one" or "awakened one"
- There are an estimated 300 million to 1 billion practicing Buddhists today
What is the role of the Dalai Lama?
The Dalai Lama is the head of state and spiritual leader of Tibet.
He is considered to be the current incarnation of a series of Buddhist tulkus, or high-ranking spiritual teachers, who are manifestations of Avalokitesvara (an enlightened being).
The Dalai Lamas continued to act as the main political institution ruling Tibet for over 300 years, until the time of the 14th and current Dalai Lama.
In what ways is Buddhism unique among major world religions?
- Its founder encouraged his disciples to question his authority and follow their own intuitions
- It worships no central deity
- Some deities are worshipped by Buddhists, but they arose from older folk traditions, not the teachings of the Buddha (these figures are often understood by worshippers to be purely metaphorical)
- It does not regard worldly things as permanent
- It rejects the notion of a permanent soul that exists before birth and persists after death
In Buddhism, what is nirvana?
Nirvana is the state of being free from the three fires of ignorance, aversion, and passion. It is generally seen as the goal of the Buddhist path.
In Buddhism, what is karma?
The total of one's good and bad deeds, which affects both a person's future and into which kind of future life that person will be reincarnated.
Which ancient Chinese philosopher, who is said to have lived in the 6th century B.C., is traditionally named as the author of Tao Te Ching, which laid the foundation for Taoism?
Laozi (aka Lao-Tsu)
Some scholars have now come to believe that the Tao Te Ching may actually have been written later, in the 3rd century B.C., with the exact author(s) in question.
Taoism obviously went on to become one of the major religions practiced in China, although the present Chinese leadership has tried to suppress its practice.
Which Chinese belief system uses the yin and yang as its symbol?
- Tao literally means "the way"
- The yin-yang represents opposites that complement rather than undermine each other
- Today, Taoism is one of five religions officially recognized in China, along with Buddhism, Islam, Protestantism, and Catholicism
- In Chinese culture, the life force that flows through any living thing
- Literally "breath"
- Maximization and control of ch'i is central to Taoist exercises
What four traditions constitute the religious patchwork of China?
- Ancient folk religion
Note: In China, none of these are perceived as mutually exclusive. They intermingle in various combinations.
___ is a monotheistic religion founded on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth (as presented in the New Testament), who is believed to be the son of God and the messiah prophesied in the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible.
There are approximately 2 billion practicing Christians today, making it the world's most popular religion.
Briefly outline the life of Jesus.
- Born around 4 B.C.
- Grew up in the city of Nazareth in Palestine
- At age 30, baptized by John the Baptist
- Began a ministry that flourished for three years
- Stressed God's compassion and criticized social hierarchy
- Often taught others by telling stories, or "parables"
- Arrested and crucified by Roman authorities at age 33
What are the two main parts of the Christian Bible?
The Old Testament and the New Testament
The Old Testament is nearly identical to the Hebrew Bible, and includes the creation of the world and writings of the Jewish prophets.
The New Testament consists of 27 books, beginning with the 4 gospels, which narrate the life of Jesus. The remaining books are comprised of stories from after Jesus' death, letters, and revelations.
What are the seven sacraments?
Rituals that mark important life milestones in the Catholic Church:
- Holy Communion
- Holy Matrimony
- Holy Orders (dedication of life to God)
- Sacrament of the Sick (preparation for death)
- Reconciliation (confession of sins)
What are the three major divisions of Christianity?
- Roman Catholicism
- Eastern Orthodoxy
Christianity split into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy in 1054 A.D. Protestants began to split from the Roman Catholics in the 16th century, after the publication of Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. Catholicism is the most widely practiced form of Christianity, with about 1 billion followers.
Which 16th-century German religious leader founded Protestantism and called for the formation of a new body of Christians?
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
A priest of the Roman Catholic Church, he began the Reformation by attacking the Church for allowing the sale of indulgences. He believed the Church was also opposed to the Bible on the question of justification by grace through faith and the doctrine of transubstantiation.
In Christianity, what is the Doctrine of the Trinity?
A doctrine common among all major Christian sects that stipulates that God is one, but has three forms: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
Because of this doctrine, people sometimes question whether Christianity is truly monotheistic.
What Christian holiday celebrates Jesus' resurrection from the dead?
What Christian holiday celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ?
___ is a monotheistic religion founded on the teachings of Muhammad (570-632).
Islam is currently the second most popular religion in the world, following Christianity. There are approximately 1.6 billion practicing Muslims worldwide.
What is the Qur'an?
The central text of Islam
Literally meaning "the recitation," it is believed to have been revealed by God to Muhammad over the course of 23 years via the angel Gabriel in the 7th century.
What is the literal meaning of "Allah," the Arabic word for God?
What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
Profession of the shahadah: "There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is His Prophet."
Canonical prayer (salah): The Muslim must pray, facing Mecca, five times a day.
Alms-giving (zakat): Giving a portion of one's earnings to the poor, if one is able to.
Fasting (sawm) during the month of Ramadan.
Pilgrimage (hajj): Once in his or her lifetime, every able Muslim must journey to the Ka'ba in Mecca.
In the Islamic faith, what is Ramadan?
A holy month during which Muslims do not eat or drink between sunrise and sunset.
They are also expected to follow the teachings of Islam more closely during this time.
Ramadan is determined by a lunar calendar, so it moves back about 11 days each calendar year.
What are the major differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims?
The major controversy centers on the true successor of Muhammad
- Sunnis believe that a caliph (head of state) should be elected by the whole community
- Shi'ites assert that only Allah himself can choose a leader, and that Muhammad's only rightful successors are his descendants
- 75-90% of Muslims are Sunnis
How do Muslims view Jesus Christ?
Muslims believe that Jesus Christ was a true prophet, and they accept his virgin birth. However, they assert that the message transmitted through Jesus was incomplete and became corrupted over time. The Qur'an is God's completion of that message.
___ is a monotheistic religion that follows the teachings of the Torah, part of the Hebrew Bible.
There are approximately 14 millions Jews in the world today, most of whom reside in Israel, Europe, and the United States.
What are some of the sacred Jewish texts?
Tanakh (which contains the Torah) - Almost identical to the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The Torah is the first section, and discusses Moses, the Ten Commandments, ethics, and worship practices.
Talmud - A guide for interpreting the Torah
Midrash - A large body of rabbinical material derived from homilies (spoken sermons)
In Judaism, what are the Articles of Faith?
They are the principles of faith that summarize the fundamental beliefs of Judaism. Belief in the 13 Articles of Faith is the minimum requirement for being a Jew, according to Medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides. Most of the articles, however, have been challenged at one time or another by various sects.
Why are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all considered Abrahamic religions?
They trace their origin to Abraham, the first Patriarch, whose story is told in the Book of Genesis.
Which religious leader, considered an important prophet in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, received the Ten Commandments from God?
- An Israelite (Hebrew), he is said to have been born in Egypt
- After fleeing from Egypt as a man, he was spoken to by God, who ordered him to return to Egypt and liberate the Hebrews
- Following the Plagues of Egypt and the release of the Israelites, he led his people on the Exodus across the Red Sea
- After receiving the Ten Commandments from God, he and his followers wandered the desert for 40 years before he died upon seeing the Promised Land
How do Christians and Jews differ on their beliefs about the Messiah?
Most practicing Jews believe that a messiah (mashiach, "anointed one") will one day appear on Earth. Christians believe the Messiah has already come in the form of Jesus Christ.
In the Jewish faith, what is Chanukkah?
A week-long Jewish holiday, usually falling in December, Chanukkah celebrates the victory of the Jewish revolt against the Greek ruler Antiochus IV in the 2nd century B.C. in a revolution led by the Maccabees.
There was only enough oil left in the menorah in the Temple of Jerusalem to burn for one night, but God caused it to last eight nights. Hence, the Chanukkah practice of lighting a new candle on the menorah each night.
In the Jewish faith, what is Rosh Hashanah?
The Jewish New Year
Rosh Hashanah lasts for two days in either September or October, and is viewed as a time to reflect on the past year and plan improvements for the coming year.
In the Jewish faith, what is Yom Kippur?
"Day of Atonement," the most holy and solemn of Jewish holidays
Yom Kippur lasts for one day in either September or October, and is considered the last chance to repent for sins against God from the previous year.
Followers participate in a day-long fast and are prohibited from going to work.
In the Jewish faith, what is Purim?
Purim is a celebration of the Jews' escape from extermination in Persia, as described in the Book of Esther.
Purim is a one-day holiday that usually falls in March. People of the faith listen to a reading of the Book of Esther and engage in eating, drinking, merry-making, and carnival-like celebrations.
In the Jewish faith, what does Passover (Pesach) celebrate?
Pesach commemorates the Jews' Exodus from Egypt, where they had been enslaved.
Passover is typically celebrated in April, and lasts for one week. During this time, all leaven (substance that allows bread to rise) must be removed from Jewish households.
A ritual meal called a seder is shared on the first and (usually) second nights.
A Jewish leader and scholar who teaches the Torah is called a ___.
A Jewish coming of age ritual
- Boys become a bar mitzvah at age 13; girls at age 12
- Bar mitzvah = son of the commandment; Bat mitzvah = daughter of the commandment
- The ceremony is not required by Jewish law and is a relatively modern invention
What are the three major movements within modern Judaism?
Orthodox: The most traditional of the modern movements. Strict observance of laws and customs set down in the Torah.
Conservative: Moderate sect. Holds to traditional customs while allowing some latitude for modernization.
Reform: The most liberal movement in modern Judaism. Rejects many practices that are perceived as outdated.
Describe Kosher dietary restrictions of the Jewish faith.
Primarily followed by Orthodox Jews, a Kosher diet is restricted by the following:
- Only land animals that chew their cud and have cloven hooves (e.g. cows, goats, deer, sheep; not pigs)
- Only fish with fins and scales (lobsters, crabs, octopi, etc. are forbidden)
- Birds of prey, insects, reptiles, and amphibians are forbidden
- All animals except fish must be ritually slaughtered and drained of blood; blood may not be consumed because it contains the soul of the animal
- Dairy and meat may not be mixed in a single meal
What are the Dead Sea Scrolls?
A collection of writings found between 1946 and 1956 in caves near the shore of the Dead Sea.
The Dead Sea Scrolls are the oldest known manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, and are believed to have been written by the Essenes, a Jewish sect that chose to withdraw from life under Roman rule.
The scrolls were influential in understanding how accurately the Bible has been translated over time.
Which ancient Chinese general and philosopher of the 6th century B.C. is credited as the author of The Art of War, which is regarded as perhaps the seminal text on military strategy and leadership?
Some of his famous words include:
- "A leader leads by example, not by force."
- "Keep your friends close, and your enemies closer."
- "The greatest victory is that which requires no battle."
Which Greek philosopher presented the Allegory of the Cave in his work The Republic, which has become one of the most influential works of political theory and philosophy?
Written around 380 B.C., The Republic's famous Allegory of the Cave described one of Plato's critical ideas: the world that most of us see -- the material world -- is but a half-seen image of the ideal and true reality.
According to the allegory, most of us are doomed to be like prisoners chained to a wall in a cave who can see only the reflections of puppets that prance in front of a fire behind them. Their reality is only those reflections.
Plato goes on to conclude it is only the philosophers who are brave and curious enough to leave the reflections on the wall to learn that the fire and the puppets behind them are what causes them -- and to ultimately emerge from the cave to move into the light (of truth and knowledge). #platolovesknowledgerehab
Which Italian Renaissance philosopher and author of The Prince advised rulers to maintain power by ruthlessly subordinating moral principles to their personal or political goals?
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
Today, when someone behaves in an extremely crafty, deceitful, and unscrupulous way to achieve personal ends, he or she may be described as acting "Machiavellian."
Which 17th-century French philosopher was fundamental to modern philosophy and the Scientific Revolution and is best known for the statement "I think, therefore I am"?
René Descartes (1596-1650)
The Cartesian coordinate system is named after him.
Which 17th-century English philosopher, best known for his book Leviathan (1651), is now regarded as the founder of modern political philosophy?
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Hobbes is known for his exploration of the challenges of social and political order. He believed that the only way for humanity to not fall into the "state of nature," a state of constant civil war and lack of cooperation, was for society to give full obedience to an unaccountable political authority of some form.
The European intellectual movement known as the ___ emphasized rationalism.
Instead of explaining phenomena and problems through religion, rationalism was a belief that all could be explained through deductive reasoning and scientific inquiry.
Which 18th-century French philosopher was a leading figure in the Enlightenment and is known for his novella Candide?
Voltaire had a considerable influence on both the French and American Revolutions, and was notable for his satirical wit in championing freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and the separation of church and state.
"Voltaire" was a pen name; his real name was François-Marie Arouet.
Which Swiss-born French philosopher, a central figure of the European Enlightenment of the 18th century, argued that humans are inherently good by nature -- but corrupted by society?
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Influential to modern thought and particularly to the French Revolution, Rousseau is known for his works On the Social Contract, Discourse on Inequality, Émile, and his autobiography Confessions.
Which Scottish philosopher and writer of the 18th century is known for The Wealth of Nations, which is often considered the first work of modern economics?
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
Smith is known most for his belief that rational self-interest in a free market economy can be the basis for overall economic security and well-being.
Which 18th-century German philosopher wrote Critique of Pure Reason?
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
He aimed to unite reason and experience, as in his mind metaphysics had not arrived at answers on important topics such as free will, God, and the soul.
Which 19th-century German philosopher served as a considerable influence on existentialism and challenged Christianity and morality, believing in the idea of "life-affirmation"?
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
Which 19th- and 20th-century Austrian physician is regarded as the founder of psychoanalysis and is best known for his works on the unconscious mind?
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
He developed the use of free association and theories about the Oedipus complex, sexual repression, and dreams.
Which 20th-century French philosopher, known as a central figure of existentialism, is famous for his works Being and Nothingness and the play No Exit?
Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
Sartre was awarded, but refused, the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature. He is quoted as saying, "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution."
What are the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda?
The two major sources of Norse mythology
- The Poetic Edda, which came first, is a collection of Old Norse poems
- The Prose Edda is a collection of writings compiled around 1200 A.D.
In Norse mythology, who was Odin?
The chief god of the Norse pantheon and the ruler of Asgard, the home world of the Aesir, the main group of gods
- God of battle, victory, magic, wisdom, poetry
- Married to Frigg (aka Frigga)
- Father of Baldur, Hod, Thor, and Vidar, among others
- Has only one eye
- Rides an eight-legged horse, Sleipnir
- Sometimes portrayed with a wide-brimmed hat, a cloak, and a wooden staff
In Norse mythology, who was Thor?
God of thunderstorms, strength, healing, destruction
- Wields the hammer Mjolnir, which has become a symbol of pagan pride
- Red hair and beard
In Norse mythology, who was Loki?
The trickster god
Crafty and malicious, he often shapeshifted in order to fool others. He was known to both help and cause problems for the gods.
In Norse mythology, who were the valkyries?
- Female deities who selected who lived and died in battle
- Some of those who died were then escorted by the valkyries to Valhalla, the hall of the slain
- The valkyries rode winged horses and wore armor
The ___ is one of the most significant mythical creatures in Chinese mythology. It is seen as the most powerful and divine creature, with the ability to control water.
What are some mythological themes shared between distinct Native American tribes, and how do they praise their gods?
Shared themes include an all-powerful Great Spirit and the importance of both respect for ancestors and bonding with nature. Native Americans usually worship through dance, song, and trance.
Traditional African religions tend to be ___ instead of scriptural, and they typically stress ancestor worship, the use of magic, and belief in spirits and a supreme being.