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Flashcards in Philosophy, Mythology & Religion Deck (100)
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___, which in Ancient Greek means "love of wisdom," is the study of the truths and principles of existence, knowledge, or conduct.



Which Ancient Greek philosopher was the teacher of Plato and was condemned to death by the citizens of Athens, who found him guilty of denying the existence of the gods and of corrupting the minds of the Athenian youth?


He is known for the Socratic method of teaching, which proceeds by question and answer instead of by lecture. He is seen as one of the founders of Western philosophy, particularly as it relates to ethics and logic.


Which Ancient Greek philosopher founded the Academy in Athens, the Western world's first institution for higher learning, and wrote the philosophical dialogues The Republic and the Symposium?


One of the most important figures in Western science and philosophy, he was a student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle.


Which Ancient Greek philosopher from the 4th century B.C. is best known for his surviving treatises that include Metaphysics, Politics, Poetics, and Physics?



One of the most important figures in Western philosophy, he wrote on many subjects and his writings and philosophy continue to be studied today. He was a student of Plato and served as tutor to Alexander the Great.


Which Chinese thinker from the 6th century B.C. founded a school of philosophy bearing his name that presents a code of ethics stressing ancestor worship, family relationships, learning, and loyalty?




His teachings evolved into Confucianism, which still governs Chinese culture today.


Which 17th-century English philosopher, known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism," influenced the American Founding Fathers by criticizing the notion of monarchs' divine right and arguing that governments should depend on the consent of the governed?

John Locke (1632-1704)

He also claimed that the human mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa) at birth and until experience eventually begins to write on it.


A ___ is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural practices, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.




A belief system is polytheistic if it has more than one deity. 

From what anthropologists have been able to determine, during prehistory humans were polytheistic, attributing divine attributes to the weather, fertility, and the like.


___ is the belief that various gods and spirits inhabit natural objects and phenomena.


At its core, animism is polytheistic and formed the belief system of early mankind.


___ is belief in the existence of a God who does not intervene in the universe.



___ is a collection of legendary stories associated with or belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition. These stories are usually concerned with deities and explain natural phenomena.



In Greek mythology, what were the Primordial Deities?

Original gods from which all other gods and entities descend

  • Chaos, Ouranos, Nyx, Gaia, Eros
  • They include the protogenoi, the First Born, who descended from Chaos
  • They are often associated with basic concepts, such as love, or with the underworld or the mystery of fertility


In Greek mythology, who were the powerful deities who ascended during the mythical Golden Age?


  • Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, Eos, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus
  • Ruled by Kronos and Rhea
  • Kronos was overthrown by his son, Zeus, which led to the rule of the more well-known Olympians
  • Fought the Olympians, the younger generation of gods, but were defeated and imprisoned in the depths of the Earth (Tartarus)


Who were the Ancient Greeks' main deities, who comprised the main gods cast in Homer's epics and later Greek plays?

The Olympians

  • Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia
  • Lived atop Mt. Olympus
  • 12 in total, though conflicting lists emerge from different historical sources


In the context of Greek mythology, what is the Underworld?

The Underworld is Hades' domain, a realm beneath the Earth filled with dead souls. It includes Tartarus, five rivers, and Cerberus, a three-headed hound.


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of time ?


  • Roman name: Saturn
  • Leader of the Titans
  • Son of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus)
  • Overthrew Ouranos and prophesied to be overthrown by his own son, Zeus


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of sky and thunder?


  • Roman name: Jupiter
  • Ruler of all Olympian gods
  • Married to Hera
  • Brother of Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of the sea and earthquakes?


  • Roman name: Neptune
  • Married to Amphitrite
  • Brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera, et al.


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of the Underworld?


  • Roman name: Pluto
  • brother of Zeus and Poseidon
  • married to Persephone
  • wields the helm of darkness, which grants invisibility


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of women and marriage?


  • Roman name: Juno
  • Zeus' wife, mother of the gods
  • Jealous and bitter towards Zeus' other lovers
  • Despised Heracles (Hercules)


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of wisdom, peace, and strategy?


  • Roman name: Minerva
  • Wise daughter of Zeus
  • Has an owl, helmet, shield, lance
  • Born out of Zeus' forehead


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of light, sun, archery, music, and poetry?


  • Roman names: Apollo, Phoebus
  • Widely worshipped son of Zeus
  • Holds a bow and arrow
  • Had many male and female lovers


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of hunting, virginity, and the moon?


  • Roman name: Diana
  • Twin sister of Apollo; also had a bow and arrow
  • Took a vow of chastity
  • Known for hunting with hounds, stags, a chariot, and nymphs


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of love and beauty?


  • Roman name: Venus
  • Born of Uranus' severed genitals, rose from the sea foam
  • Married to Hephaestus; had affairs with Ares, Adonis, Hermes


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of trade, travelers, sports, and boundaries?


  • Roman name: Mercury
  • Messenger of the gods, as well as guide to the Underworld
  • Wore a winged cap and winged sandals


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of war?


  • Roman name: Mars
  • Violent god, wore a shield and helmet
  • Son of Zeus and Hera


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the god of lust, attraction, and love?


  • Roman name: Cupid
  • Son of Aphrodite and Ares
  • Embodiment of erotic love
  • Winged


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of spring and fertility?


  • Roman name: Persipina
  • Queen of the Underworld
  • Daughter of Demeter and Zeus
  • Abducted by Hades to be his queen; later tricked into being forced to go to the Underworld for four months every year


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the goddess of grain, fertility, and pureness?


  • Roman name: Ceres
  • Preserver of marriage and law
  • Nourisher of crops
  • Mother to Persephone


In Greco-Roman mythology, who was the Titan who held the heaven above the Earth for eternity?