Phonological Development Flashcards Preview

Linguistics 112 > Phonological Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phonological Development Deck (23):
1

Newborn

-Startled by loud noise

-Turns head in response to sound

-Calmed by voices

-Preference for mother's voice

-Ignores some speech sounds

-Cooing sounds, laughs

-Cries differently when hurt, angry, hungry etc.

2

1-2 Months

-Smiles when spoken to

3

3-7 Months

-Responds differently to different intonation

4

8-12 Months

-Responds to name and no

-Recognizes some words

-Babbles with consonant / vowel changes "badagoo"

-Babbling becomes more language-specific near 12 months

5

4-6 Month Productive Ability

-Random usage of syllables, normally "ba" "ga"

6

6-8 Month Productive Ability

-Babbles with duplication

-Attempts to imitate sounds

7

Babbling sounds are:

Universal across all languages

-Common sounds in language will appear most frequently in babbling

8

Frequent consontants

p, b, m

t, d, n

k, g

s, h, w, j

9

General tendencies of phonological acquisition:

-vowels acquired earlier than consonants

-stops acquired before other consonants

-Labials > Alveolars / velars > Alveopalatals > dentals

10

Syllable Deletion

-Deletion of one or many syllables

Dishwasher > wa

11

Syllable Simplification

-Consonant clusters

Small > ma

12

Substitutions

-Stopping: fricative > stop
--ship > tip

-Fronting: place of articulation moves forward
--Ship > sip

-Gliding: liquid > glide
--Lorry > woji

-Denasalization: nasal > oral stop
--jam >dab

13

Assimilation

-Sounds become more similar

Big pig > big big

14

Prosody Acquisition

-9 mo prefer sounds in their own language

-7.5 mo can identify words with multiple syllables

-10.5 mo can identify rhythm patterns

15

Trochaic Stress Patternq

-Strong-weak / stressed-unstressed multi-syllable words

16

When does vocab development start?

1 year

-1.5 yo = 50 words

17

Lexical constraints / principles (Mapping)

-Whole object assumption

-1 object = 1 name

18

Whole object assumption

1 word = 1 object

-Words are most likely to refer to objects, rather than ideas

19

Social Pragmatic Theory (mapping)

-Use of non-verbal cues

-Eye-fazes, gestures, attention

20

Overextension

-applies the meaning of a word to multiple ideas or objects

Eg. A kitten is all fluffly animals

21

Underextension

-Applies the meaning of a broad word to a specific object

Eg. A kitten is only Mr. Mittens, the family pet, not all small cats

22

Morphological feature acquisition order

-ing

plural (-s)

possessive ('s)

the, a

past (-ed)

auxiliary (be)

23

Overgeneralization

-Applies morphological rules in places it does not work

Eg. Broke = breaked or broked

I broomed it up