Phonological Processes Flashcards Preview

SHS 585 Artic & Phonology > Phonological Processes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phonological Processes Deck (54):
1

An unstressed syllable is deleted

Weak syllable deletion

2

An entire syllable or part of a syllable is repeated

Reduplication

3

A word (or syllable) final consonant is deleted

Final Consonant Deletion

4

A word initial consonant is deleted

Initial Consonant Deletion

5

A sequence of two or more consonants is simplified, usually by deletion of the more "marked" element

Cluster Reduction

6

Three types of cluster reduction

/s/ cluster reduction
nasal cluster reduction
liquid cluster reduction

7

Features from two adjacent sounds or syllables combine

Coalescence

8

A segment is inserted, often between tow elements of a cluster

Epenthesis

9

Two sounds are reversed

Metathesis

10

One sound is influenced by another and becomes more similar (or identical) to it.

Assimilation Processes

11

Assimilation processes may be ____________ or ______________.

regressive; progressive

12

Three types of assimilation

Velar Assimilation
Labial Assimilation
Nasal Assimilation

13

Sounds are replaced by others produced further forward in the mouth

Fronting Processes

14

Types of fronting processing (2)

Depalitalization (Palatal Fronting)
Velar Fronting

15

Sounds are replaced by others produced further back in the mouth

Backing Processes

16

Types of backing processes

Palatalization
Velarization
Alveolarization

17

Fricatives or affricates are replaced by stops

Stopping

18

Fricatives are replaced by affricates

Affrication

19

Fricatives are replaced by glides

Gliding

20

Affricates are replaced by fricatives

Deaffrication

21

Nonsyllabic liquids are replaced by glides or vowels

Liquid Simplification

22

Syllabic liquids or nasals are replaced by vowels

Vocalization

23

Nasals are replaced by homorganic oral stops

Denasalization

24

Voiceless obstruents are voiced, usually preceeding a vowel or in word-initial position

Voicing

25

Obstruents are devoiced, ususally in final position

Devoicing

26

Fricatives are produced with lateral emission or are replaced by a lateral fricative

Lateralization

27

Consonant sounds are replaced by glottal stops, usually in intervocalic or final position.

Glottal Replacement

28

Several adult sounds are replaced by one sound (or 2 similar sounds) in one or more positions; e.g., all word initial fricatives are replaced by /f/ or all initial continuant sounds are replaced by /j/

Neutralization

29

Vowels are raised, lowered, dipthongized, reduced to schwa or neutralized to one particular vowel sound

Vowel Changes

30

Phonological Processes that may persist past 5 years of age

Stopping
Gliding

31

“bake” /beɪk/ produced as [beɪb]


Assimilation (labial)

32

“candy” /kændi/ produced as [næni]

Assimilation (manner)

33

“take” /teɪk/ produced as [teɪt]

Assimilation (alveolar)

34

“goat” /ɡoʊt/ produced as [koʊt]

Assimilation (voicing)

35

“penny” /pɛni/ is produced at [bɛni]

Voicing (context sensitive, prevocalic)

36

“tag” /tæɡ/ produced as /tæk/

Devoicing (postvocalic)

37

“basket” /bæskɪt/ produced [bæbæ]
“pudding” /pʊdɪŋ/ produced as [pʊpʊ]

Reduplication

38

“fit” /fɪt/ is produced as [tʃɪt]
“shoe” /ʃu/ produced as [tʃu]

Affrication

39

“do” /du/ is produced as [ɡu]

Backing

40

“chip” /tʃɪp/ is produced as [ʃɪp]
“pitch” /pɪtʃ/ is produced as [pɪt]

Deaffrication (can also be called stopping when a stop is substituted)

41

“nose” /noʊz/ is produced as [doʊz]

Denasalization

42

“fish” /fɪʃ/ is produced as [fɪs]
“match” /mætʃ/ is produced as [mæts]
“shoe” /ʃu/ is produced as [su]

Palatal Fronting or Depalatization

43

“car” /kɑɹ/ is produced as [tɑɹ]

Velar Fronting

44

“rabbit” /ɹæbɪt/ is produced as [wæbɪt]
“look” /lʊk/ is produced as [wʊk] or [jʊk]

Gliding
(Also called liquid simplification or liquid deviation)

45

“hat” /hæt/ is produced as [hæʔ]

Glottal Replacement

46

“sun” /sʌn/ is produced as [tʌn]
“juice” /ʤus/ is produced as [dus]

Stopping
(when the target is an affricate, this can be referred to as deaffrication)

47

“door” /dɔɹ/ is produced as [dɔʊ]

Vowelization or Vocalization

48

“dog” /dɑɡ/ is produced at [dʊɡ]

Vowel Error

49

“blue” /blu/ is produced as [bəlu]

Epenthesis

50

“plane” /pleɪn/ is produced as [peɪn] or [leɪn]

Cluster Reduction

51

“bus” /bʌs/ is produced as [bʌ]

Final Consonant Deletion

52

“basket” /bæskət/ is produced as [bæksət]

Metathesis

53

“stick” /stɪk/ is produced as [tɪks]

Migration

54

“giraf” /dʒɪɹæf/ is produced as [ræf]

Syllable Deletion