Phrenic, Vagus, Sympathetic Trunks and Ganglia Flashcards Preview

Medicine MD3001 cardiovascular system > Phrenic, Vagus, Sympathetic Trunks and Ganglia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phrenic, Vagus, Sympathetic Trunks and Ganglia Deck (62):
1

which cranial nerve is the vagus nerve?

10

2

what sort of nerve fibres are carried by the vagus nerve?

parasympathetic fibres to thoracic and abdominal viscera

3

where does the vagus nerve originate from?

medulla oblongata in the brain stem

4

which blood vessel does the vagus nerve follow out of the skull?

the internal jugular vein

5

which structure in the neck does the vagus nerve pass into?

carotid sheath
in-between internal jugular vein and internal common carotid artery

6

how does the vagus nerve enter the thoracic inlet?

lies in between the venous and arterial planes
posterior to brachiocephalic vein
medial to phrenic nerves

7

at what vertebral level does the vagus nerve leave the thorax? With what structure?

-T10
-oesophagus

8

how does the vagus nerve pass the root/hilum of the lung?

posteriorly

9

how does the R vagus relate to the trachea?

lies lateral

10

how does the R vagus relate to the arch of the azygous vein?

medial to the arch

11

what vessels form plexus at the oesophagus?

L and R vagus nerves

12

which nerve passes on the left side of the aortic arch?

L vagus

13

which arteries is the L vagus related to?

L common carotid, L subclavian

14

the recurrent laryngeal nerves are branches of which nerves?

vagus nerves

15

what autonomic plexuses do both the vagus nerves give preganglionic branches to ?

pulmonary
cardiac
oesophageal

16

what are the sensory and motor innervations of the recurrent laryngeal nerves?

motor to laryngeal muscles
sensory to mucosa below the vocal folds

17

which nerve curves superiorly under the Right subclavian artery?

right recurrent laryngeal

18

what vessel does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve pass under?

arch of the aorta

19

which nerve passes posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum?

L recurrent laryngeal

20

what structures does the L RCLN pass between to reach the larynx?

trachea and oesophagus in a groove

21

which arteries do the RCLNs relate to?

inferior thyroid arteries

22

what surgery hurts the RCLNs and the inferior thyroid arteries at risk? what is the outcome if damaged?

-thyroid surgery
-hoarse voice if damaged

23

a tumour where causes hoarseness of voice?

in left lung
enlarged lymph nodes due to tumour compresses the L RCLN

24

what are the functional units of the nervous system?

neurones specialised for rapid communication

25

what is the sympathetic neurotransmitter?

noradrenaline

26

what is the parasympathetic neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

27

what are the functions of the sympathetic system on cardiovascular system?

increases BP
increases heart rate+contraction strength
dilates coronary vessels
increases respiratory efficiency
constricts peripheral circulation
inhibits sphincters
controls body temperature

28

where do preganglionic bodies of the sympathetic system lie?

lateral grey matter of thoracic spinal cord

29

which vertebral levels do primary neurones of preganglionic cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system arise from?

T1 to L2

30

how is sympathetic outflow described?

thoracolumbar

31

what lies in sympathetic ganglion?

postganglionic cell bodies

32

in what 2 ways are postganglionic cell bodies of sympathetic system distributed?

-hitch hike along somatic nerves/ and or arteries and are distributed widely all over the body
-supply adjacent viscera through autonomic plexuses

33

what forms the sympathetic trunks?

2 trunks
formed of 2 chains of cell bodies of postganglionic neurones
lie alongside all the vertebral bodies atlas to coccyx

34

what are the lengths of sympathetic pre and post ganglionic neurones?

short pre
long post

35

how do sympathetic preganglionic neurones reach the sympathetic trunk?

white rami communicates
they either: synapse immediately in adjacent ganglion
or travel up or down in trunk to be distributed above and below T1 and L2

36

what is the name of the structure where the sympathetic ganglion fuse?

ganglion impart opposite coccyx

37

what cervical ganglia are there?

superior, middle and inferior

38

what is the stellate ganglion? where is it?

fusion of middle and inferior cervical ganglia
lies on neck of rib 1

39

what pre ganglionic neurones pass straight through trunk to reach abdominal viscera and adrenal gland?

greater: T5-9, coeliac
lesser: T10, 11, superior mesenteric
least splanchnic nerves: T12, inferior mesenteric

40

what are the three things primary neurones can do when they reach body wall and limbs?

-synapse immediately and secondary neurones pass in GRC to spinal nerve
-travel up trunk synapse with cervical ganglion above T1, 2y neurones pass in GRC to cervical spinal nerves
-travel down trunk and synapse in a ganglion below L2, 2y neurones pass in GRC to lumbar and sacral spinal nerves

41

what levels does head receive sympathetic innervation from?

T1-T3

42

what level of sympathetic nerves supplies upper limb?

T4-T6

43

what level are the abdominal and thoracic walls sympathetic neurones derived from?

T1-12

44

what is the level of sympathetic innervation to lower limb?

T12- L2

45

where are parasympathetic nerves distributed to?

head
neck
viscera

46

what preganglioinc cell bodies lie in the CNS?

parasympathetic

47

where do pregnaglionic cell bodies of parasympathetic system lie?

cranial= 3,7,9 and 10
sacral= 2,3 ,4

48

how is parasympathetic outflow described?

craniosacral

49

Where do postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies lie?

special ganglia of the head and neck
close to viscera they supply
contribute to anatomical plexuses

50

what are the effects of the parasympathetic system?

slows breathing and heart rate
reduces CO and BP
opens sphincters
meiosis-constriction of pupils
secretomotor to glands

51

heart and lungs are supplied by neurones arising between which vertebral levels?

T1-5

52

what do cardiac branches (2y sympathetic neurones)supply?

SA node
coronary vessels
T1 fibres included

53

where do primary neurones travel to and synapse to provide cardiac branches?

ascend trunk and synapse in T1 and inferior and middle cervical ganglia (stellate)

54

where do cardiac branches (2y sympathetic neurones) emerge from?

cervical part of sympathetic trunk
pass down to the cardiac plexus at the tracheal bifurcation

55

pulmonary sympathetic fibres emerge from which level?

T2-4
bronchial dilation and bronchial vessels

56

what level do oesophageal sympathetic fibres emerge form?

T4-6

57

neurones originating from T7-9 supply what?

stomach

58

where is a Pancots tumour located?

apex of lung

59

what causes Horners syndrome?

Pancots tumour

60

what does pants tumour affect?

sympathetic trunk
stellate ganglion on neck of 1st rib

61

what is the neurological effect of pants tumour?

compromises sympathetic supply to head and neck on the same side as tumour

62

what are the signs and symptoms of horners syndrome?

Ptosis- upper eyelid dropping
mitosis= pupillary constriction
anhydrosis= lack of sweating
flushing of face

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