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Year2 Repro exam I > Phys review, michels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phys review, michels Deck (55):
1

when the corpus luteum sheds what happens to E and P levels? pituitary?

E and P drop
pituitary then increases FSH

2

increasing FSH stimulates what response in menstrual cycle

recruits large antral follicles to grow and they begin to secrete low amounts of E and inhibin

3

How do E and inhibin affect FSH

negative feedback

4

what occurs with declining FSH levels

atresia of all but 1 follicle that will now secrete high levels E

5

how does high E affect gonadotrophs

LH and some FSH surgres

6

LH surge causes what

metabolic maturation, ovulation, leutinization
corpus luteum now makes high P and some E and inhibin

7

response to high P and E and inhibin levels

negative feedback to LH and FSH returning to basal levels

8

if LH levels remain at basal level what will happen to corpus luteum

will die

9

3 stages of follicular development

initiation and gonadotropin independent phase
basal growth phase
rapid growth phase

10

what follicles are not dependent on pituitary gland

primordial, and primary

11

how many days is the rapid growth phase from large antral to dominant follicle

14 days

12

hormone producing cells

theca cells

13

what cells form corpus luteum

mural granulosa cells and theca cells

14

before ovulation what phase does the primary oocyte undergo

from prophase I to arrest in metaphase II

15

when does the secondary oocyte complete meiosis

at fertilization

16

at follicular phase what does GnRH do

pulsatile to stimulate LH act on theca cells and FSH act on granulosa cells

17

at end of follicular phase why is there LH surge

high levels E gives + feedback

18

what happens to theca cells and granulosa cells in luteal phase

theca still respond to LH
granulosa now respond to FSH AND LH
both types cells become luteal cells that secrete P and E

19

feedback from E and P in luteal phase

negative feedback

20

what are corpus albican

scar tissue in ovary form recent regression of corpus luteum

21

what are the parts of fallopian tube

infundibulum is opening
ampulla- fertilization takes place
isthmus
intramural segment (proximal)

22

estrogen effects on oviduct

increase endosalpinx epithelial size
increase blood flow
increase glycoproteins
increase ciliogenesis
increase mucus and muscular tone

23

progesterone effects on oviducts

dec epithelial size
dec mucus
relax muscular tone
deciliation

24

phases of menstrual cycle

menstrual phase
proliferative phase
secretory phase

25

LH surge corresponds to what event

ovulation

26

effects of E on cervical mucus

stimulates production of thin watery alkaline mucus

27

effects of P on cervical mucus

stimulates production of scant viscous, slightly acidic mucus

28

E effecs on bone

closure of epiphyseal plates
anabolic and calcitropic hormone

29

E effects on liver

increase LDL R and HDL levels, cortisol binding protein, thyroid hormone binding protein and sex hormone binding protein

30

CV effects of E

E cause vasodilation through NO synthesis

31

what does E bind to

majoirty sex hormone binding protein
also albumin

32

P binds to what

cortisol binding protein and albumin

33

how many days after ovulation dose hCG increase in pregnancy

10 days

34

duration of pregnancy is counted from what start date

date of last menstual cycle

35

how many weeks is a pregnancy counted from ovulation

38 weeks

36

main hormone in 1st trimester

hCG which rescues corpus luteum and stimulates corpus luteal production of estrogen and progesterone

37

main hormone in 2nd and 3rd trimesters

P and E under control of placenta

38

what are limits of placenta in hormone production

cannot make adequate cholesterol
lacks enzymes for estrone and estradiol and estriol

39

what does the mother contribute to placenta for hormone synthesis

LDL cholesterol

40

what does the fetus contribute to placenta for hormone synthesis

enzymes to make estriol
enzymes are in adrenal glands and liver

41

what is HPL

human placental lactogen
similar to GH and PRL

42

what hormone is directly proportional to size of placenta

human placental lactogen

43

effects of hPL

diabetogenic (antagonist to insulin)
increase glucose availability for fetus
simulates mammary growth and development

44

what happens to pituiatry in pregnancy

doubles in size
ADH set point is lowered

45

what happens to adrenal gland in pregnancy

cortisol and aldosterone levels increase
E stimulates RAAS

46

thyroid changes in pregnangcy

total T4 and T3 increase but free T4 normal
TSH decrease in first trimester

47

CV changes in pregnancy

icnreased volume
dec peripheral R
increase SV, HR, CO and contractility

48

Resp changes in pregnancy

increase minute and tidal volume
dec PCO2, dec FRC, dec IRV
respiratory alkalosis

49

renal changes in pregnancy

increase ADH, renin, ANG II, aldosterone, GFR

50

stages of labor

strong uterine contractions
delivery of fetus
delivery of placenta

51

what hormones initiate parturition

placental CRH
E
oxytocin
PGs

52

PRL levels during breast feeding

pulsatile

53

what releases oxytocin

pars nervosa

54

how come women who are breast feeding don't ovulate

the increased prolactin levels neg feedback to the parvicellular cells which decrease GnRH which dec LH and FSH production so amenorrhea

55

roles of oxytocin

milk letdown but also limits bleeding during partuition