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Flashcards in Physical Evidence Deck (54):
1

What are the three types of evidence?

Testimonial
Documentary
Physical

2

Statements made by witnesses, victims, or suspects is what type of evidence?

Testimonial Evidence

3

Any type of written evidence is what type of evidence?

Documentary Evidence

4

What type of evidence is also known as real evidence?

Physical Evidence

5

True of False: Physical evidence may be visible or invisible?

True

6

What type of evidence helps establish the elements of the crime, links scene, suspect and victim, and identify persons involved?

Physical Evidence

7

What is the Theory of Interchange?

Every contact leaves a trace

8

Who developed the Theory of Interchange?

Doctor Edmond Locard

9

What are the two characteristics of evidence?

Class Characteristics
Individual Characteristics

10

What are class characteristics?

Those characteristics which can be associated with a family of objects

11

What are individual characteristics?

Characteristics of items which are caused by natural or chance occurrences, use and abuse, or wear and tear which will allow the impressions made by an item to be matched back to the item through forensic examination or mechanical matching

12

What are the three photographic views of scene/evidence necessary?

Overall
Intermediate
Close-up

13

How do sketches aid in evidence documentation?

Sketches are used to show location and distance relationships between relevant items within the scene

14

What information is always included on sketches?

* Title block (case number, date, type of case, sketcher, location, and other information as required by agency)
* "Not to scale" notation, and
* North arrow (compass direction)
* Evidence indicated by numbers
* Fixed points/large objects indicated by letters

15

A sketch legend includes what four items?

* explanation of symbols used on sketch(es)
* Measurements
* Items of evidence
* Photo points

16

What type of measurement is generally considered the most accurate method of plotting the position of items on a sketch?

Triangulation

17

How are triangulation measurements performed?

Triangulation is used to plot the position of an item by measuring from two or more fixed points to two or more points on the item to be located.

18

What are straight line measurements used for?

Used to measure room dimensions or to locate items along a wall

19

When are rectangular measurements used?

Used to locate items 90 degrees off of a wall

20

What are the six types of search methods?

1. Zone or sector
2. Clockwise/counterclockwise
3. Spiral
4. Strip
5. Grid
6. Point to point

21

When is the zone search method used?

* Used inside or outside
* Breaks large areas into smaller, more manageable sections

22

When is the Clockwise/counterclockwise search method used?

* Useful indoors
* Search is conducted from eye level up, and eye level down, in clockwise and counterclockwise directions, the repeated

23

What type of search method is often used underwater when visibility is limited?

Spiral

24

When is the strip search method used?

* Used outdoors
* A number of searchers line up side by side and search in lines until the complete area has been searched

25

What is the grid search method?

* Basically two strip searches superimposed at 90 degree angles to one another
* Goes over the same area twice

26

When is the point to point search method used?

* Used in small confined spaces
* Unsystematic and may lead to the inadvertent destruction of evidence

27

What are some types of fragile evidence?

body fluids
volatile liquids
latent prints

28

What type of container is clothing packaged in?

A porous container

29

What do you do if clothing evidence is wet?

Air dry naturally on a plastic hanger with clean paper beneath it

30

What are comparison standards?

Known samples to be compared to unknown samples of like substances

31

Fingerprints on porous surfaces, that are not visible, are developed with what?

Chemicals

32

If not visible, fingerprints on non-porous surfaces are developed with what?

Powder

33

How should firearms at a crime scene be packaged?

In a sturdy container and in a manner that will prevent movement of the gun

34

To prevent damage to hairs or fiber evidence, how should it be collected?

Collect with soft forceps, gloved hands, or other method to prevent damage to item

35

How should hair or fiber evidence be packaged?

In either a pharmacists fold (folded paper), or a pillbox

36

Narcotics and other drugs should be packaged in what type of container?

In a non-porous container, except moist, leafy materials

37

Moist, leafy drugs should be packaged in what type of container?

A porous container until it dries out

38

A chain of custody does what?

Documents evidence from the time it is discovered until no longer needed by the court

39

What information should be included on the chain of custody document?

* Agency case number, item number
* Who found and who collected the evidence with the date and time if different people handled it
* Location and/or person from whom recovered
* Tag large items, package and label smaller items

40

How many copies of a letter of transmittal should be included with the evidence sent to the lab?

Two, one inside the package and one outside the package

41

Live ammunition, being shipped to the lab, should be sent via what carrier?

FedEx

42

All evidence, except live ammunition and firearms, sent to the lab, should be sent via what carrier?

USPS

43

Firearms sent to the lab should be sent via what carrier?

UPS

44

What are the four components of documents?

Paper
Ink
Writing Instrument
Machines

45

What are the two identifiers of Paper?

Composition
Watermark

46

Who keeps the ink library?

USSS

47

True or false: the year ink was manufactured can be determined?

True

48

What are five types of writing instruments?

* Ball point pen
* Roller ball
* Fountain pen
* Porous tip pen
* Pencil, etc.

49

What type of machine is the easiest to identify?

Typewriter

50

How are color copiers identified?

Color copiers use a pattern of yellow dots, left on the paper, to ID different machines

51

What are "trash marks"?

Machines can be traced to a document through "trash marks" caused through normal wear and tear through use.

52

What are three key points about handwriting?

* Unique to an individual
* Can be affected by age, drugs or alcohol, health, conscious attempt to disguise, etc.
* No 5th or 6th amendment violations

53

What are pros and cons of Request exemplars?

* Can be dictated
* Are known samples
* Can be taken to the satisfaction of the investigator
* Usually no admissibility problems
* Attempt to disguise must be factored into the writing
* May be a significant lapse of time since the original was written
* Obtain samples early in the interview
* Do not let the suspect see or handle the original document
* Make a note of any special instructions or circumstances surrounding the exemplar

54

What are some pros and cons of non-request exemplars?

* Usually free from disguise
* Suspect does not have to be aware the investigator is collecting samples
* Samples can be obtained from the same time frame as the questioned document
* Time and cost are factors
* May not be able to find samples that approximate the questioned document
* May present admissibility problems