Physics and Math Chapter 8: Light and Optics Flashcards Preview

MCAT Math and Physics > Physics and Math Chapter 8: Light and Optics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physics and Math Chapter 8: Light and Optics Deck (29):
1

Electromagnetic waves

transverse waves that consist of an oscillating electric field and an oscillating magnetic field. (perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation of the wave)

2

Electromagnetic spectrum

the range of frequencies and wavelengths found in EM waves.

3

EM spectrum from lowest to highest energy

radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma-rays

4

Visible spectrum

runs from violet (400nm) to red (700 nm)

5

Reflection

the rebounding of incident light waves at the boundary of a medium

6

Law of reflection

states that the incident angle will equal the angle of reflection, as measured from the normal.

7

Spherical mirrors

have centers and radii of curvature as well as focal points

8

Concave mirrors

Are converging systems and can produce real, inverted images or virtual, upright images, depending on the placement of the object relative to the focus.

9

Convex mirrors

diverging systems and will only produce, virtual, upright images

10

Plane mirrors

Also produce virtual, upright images; these images are always the same size as the object. They may be thought of as spherical mirrors with infinite radii of curvature.

11

Refraction

the bending of light as it passes from one medium to another.

12

The speed of light changes depending on:

index of refraction of the medium. This speed change causes refraction.

13

The amount of refraction depends on:

the wavelength of the light involved; this behavior causes dispersion of light through a prism.

14

Snell's law (the law of refraction)

States that there is an inverse relationship between the index of refraction and the sine of the angle of refraction (measured from the normal)

15

Total internal reflection

occurs when light cannot be refracted out of a medium and is instead reflected back inside the medium. (happens when light moves from higher index of refraction to a medium with a lower index of refraction)

16

Critical angle

the minimum incident angle at which total internal reflection occurs

17

Lenses

refract light to form images of objects.

18

Thin symmetrical lenses

have focal points on each side

19

Convex lenses

converging systems can produce real, inverted images or virtual upright images

20

Concave lenses

are diverging systems and will only produce virtual, upright images.

21

Lensmaker's equation

used for lenses with non-negligible thickness

22

Diffraction

the bending and spreading out of light waves as they pass through a narrow slit.

23

What can diffraction occur?

the bending and spreading out of light waves as they pass through a narrow slit

24

Interference

supports the wave theory of light

25

Young's double-slit experiment

shows the constructive and destructive interference of waves that occur as light passes through parallel slits, resulting in minima (dark fringes) and maxima (bright fringes) of intensity

26

Plane-polarized light

all of the light rays have electric fields with parallel orientation

27

polarizer

creates plan-polarized light when unpolarized light is passed through

28

Circularly polarized light

all of the light rays have electric fields with equal intensity, but constantly rotating direction.

29

Circularly polarized light

created by exposing unpolarized light to special pigments or fibers