Flashcards in Physics and Math Chapter 8: Light and Optics Deck (29):
transverse waves that consist of an oscillating electric field and an oscillating magnetic field. (perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation of the wave)
the range of frequencies and wavelengths found in EM waves.
EM spectrum from lowest to highest energy
radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma-rays
runs from violet (400nm) to red (700 nm)
the rebounding of incident light waves at the boundary of a medium
Law of reflection
states that the incident angle will equal the angle of reflection, as measured from the normal.
have centers and radii of curvature as well as focal points
Are converging systems and can produce real, inverted images or virtual, upright images, depending on the placement of the object relative to the focus.
diverging systems and will only produce, virtual, upright images
Also produce virtual, upright images; these images are always the same size as the object. They may be thought of as spherical mirrors with infinite radii of curvature.
the bending of light as it passes from one medium to another.
The speed of light changes depending on:
index of refraction of the medium. This speed change causes refraction.
The amount of refraction depends on:
the wavelength of the light involved; this behavior causes dispersion of light through a prism.
Snell's law (the law of refraction)
States that there is an inverse relationship between the index of refraction and the sine of the angle of refraction (measured from the normal)
Total internal reflection
occurs when light cannot be refracted out of a medium and is instead reflected back inside the medium. (happens when light moves from higher index of refraction to a medium with a lower index of refraction)
the minimum incident angle at which total internal reflection occurs
refract light to form images of objects.
Thin symmetrical lenses
have focal points on each side
converging systems can produce real, inverted images or virtual upright images
are diverging systems and will only produce virtual, upright images.
used for lenses with non-negligible thickness
the bending and spreading out of light waves as they pass through a narrow slit.
What can diffraction occur?
the bending and spreading out of light waves as they pass through a narrow slit
supports the wave theory of light
Young's double-slit experiment
shows the constructive and destructive interference of waves that occur as light passes through parallel slits, resulting in minima (dark fringes) and maxima (bright fringes) of intensity
all of the light rays have electric fields with parallel orientation
creates plan-polarized light when unpolarized light is passed through
Circularly polarized light
all of the light rays have electric fields with equal intensity, but constantly rotating direction.