Physio: Acid Base Regulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physio: Acid Base Regulation Deck (23):
1

Acid

H+ Donor

2

Base

H+ Acceptor

3

Acidosis

The excess addition of H+ to body fluids

4

Alkalosis

The excess removal of H+ from body fluids

5

Volatile acid

An acid derived directly from the hydration of CO2

6

Non-Volatile Acid

An acid NOT derived directly from the hydration of CO2

7

Titratable Acid

An acid that can lose H+ in an acid/base reaction

8

Acid-Base disorders manifest themselves as deviations in levels of either ________

Plasma CO2 or HCO3-

Can be caused by a primary disturbance of HCO3- or pCO2

9

Respiratory Acidosis

High pCO2

10

Respiratory Alkalosis

Low pCO2

11

Metabolic Acidosis

Low HCO3- (plasma)

12

Metabolic Alkalosis

High HCO3- (plasma)

13

Respiratory Disorders

Caused by over or under-ventilation

14

Primary uncompensated disorder

If only one of these is unchanged

Compensation exists when either pCO2 or HCO3- levels remain altered for a period of time

15

What is the log value of the dissociation constant for the bicarbonate buffer system?

6.1

16

Rule of thumb

Respiratory acid-base disturbance-->

Metabolic acid-base disturbance-->

Resp--> renal compensation

Met --> respiratory compensation

17

Respiratory Acidosis

Low alveolar ventilation
Increases pCO2
Decreases pH

Renal response increased bicarbonate reabsorption and increasing H+ excretion

18

Respiratory Alkalosis

Caused by high alveolar ventilation (hyperventilation)
Decreases pCO2
Increases pH (more basic)

Renal response is increasing Bicarbonate excretion and increasing H+ reabsorption

19

Metabolic Acidosis

Many possible causes
Loss of HCO3- and Addition of H+
Decrease in pH

Renal Response:
-Reabsorb all HCO3-
-Contribute new HCO3-
-Excretion of NH4+ and titratable acids

20

What are the 3 kinds of tubular dysfunction? (Aka renal tubular acidosis RTA)

Classical Distal RTA (type 1): Defect in H+ secretion (Type A IC)

Proximal RTA (type 2): Defect in the HCO3- reabsorption

Hyperkalemia RTA (type 4): Associagted with hyperaldosteronism or pseudoaldosteronism

21

Where is breathing regulated?

Chemosensitive area of the medulla

22

How do the kidneys regulate pH levels?

Reabsorption of HCO3-

Secretion of H+

Production of new HCO3-

23

Under normal conditions ________ HCO3- is excreted in the urine

Very little