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Flashcards in Physiologic Monitoring Part2 Deck (40):
1

Maximal volume at expiration after a maximal inspiration

Vital capacity

2

Total volume of air leaving the lung each minute

Minute volume

3

The portion of tidal volume that does not participate in in gas exchange a. Anatomic dead space b. Physiologic dead space

Physiologic death space

4

evaluates: a. Efficacy of gas exchange b. Adequacy of alveolar ventilation c. Acid – base status

Blood gas analysis

5

Can also be measured in arterial blood gas

carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin

6

Evaluates gas exchange in the lungs by measuring partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) as well as the pH of an arterial sample

ABG

7

Measures the pressure exerted by the O2 dissolved in the blood •Evaluates the lung's ability to oxygenate the blood

PaO2

8

Measures the pressure exerted by CO2 dissolved in the blood •Reflects the adequacy of ventlation by the lungs

PaCO2

9

Measures the blood's hydrogen ion concentration •Best way to tell whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline

PH

10

A measure of the bicarbonate ion concentration in the blood, which is regulated by the kidneys

Bicarbonate HCO3

11

Oxygen content of the blood expressed as a percentage of the oxygen capacity •Oxygen capacity: the amount of oxygen the blood is capable if all of the Hgb were fully saturated

Oxygen saturation SAO2

12

Normal ABG values

pH: 7.35 - 7.45 •
PaCO2: 35 - 45 mm Hg •
PaO2: 80 - 100 mm Hg •
HCO3-: 22 - 26 mEq/L •
SaO2: 94% - 100

13

•Involves removal of an aliquot of blood from the patient

Conventional Laboratory Blood Gas analyzer

14

In mechanically ventilated patients depends on:

1.Mean airway pressure
2.Fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2), and
3.Sv–O2 (O2 Saturation of Hgb in venous

15

measured at the end of inspiration •Is a function of: •Tidal volume •Resistance of the airways •Lung/chest wall compliance, and •Peak inspiratory flow

Peak airway pressure

16

Airway pressure measured at the end of inspiration when the inhaled volume is held in the lungs by briefly closing the expiratory valve is termed the plateau airway pressure

Plateau

17

Major airway

Peak

18

Small airway

Plateau

19

not measured routinely with each delivered tidal volume, but rather is measured intermittently by setting the ventilator to close the exhalation circuit briefly at the end of inspiration and record the airway pressure when airflow is zero

Plateau

20

Graphic display of CO2 concentration in wave form •Available systems: a. Infrared analysis b. Mass spectrometry c. Raman scattering d. Disposable colorimetric devices e. Semi-quantitive measurement on the end- tidal CO2 concentrations

Capnography

21

Measurement of CO2 in the airway throughout the respiratory cycle. •It is most commonly measured by infrared light absorption. •CO2 absorbs infrared light at a peak wavelength of approximately 4.27 m

Capnometry

22

can be used to estimate PaCO2 without

PETCO2

23

Allows confirmation of endotracheal intubation •Continuous assessment of ventilation, integrity of the airway, operation of the ventilator, and cardiopulmonary function

Capnography

24

Reliable, real-time estimation of the arterial Hgb saturation •Wide clinical acceptance

Pulse oximetry

25

Pulse oximeter will incorrectly interpret carboxyhemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin and the arterial saturation displayed will be falsely elevated

Carb oxyhemoglobin is elevated

26

SaO2 will be displayed as 85%, regardless of the true arterial saturation

Increase methemoglobin

27

are variants of normal hemoglobin that are not capable of effectively carrying oxygen

Carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin

28

Relatvely non-invasive monitoring of adequacy of aerobic metabolism in organs whose superficial mucosal lining is extremely vulnerable to low flow changes and hypoxemia

Gastric tonometry

29

Relatvely non-invasive monitoring of adequacy of aerobic metabolism in organs whose superficial mucosal lining is extremely vulnerable to low flow changes and hypoxemia

Blood urea nitrogen

30

More accurate than BUN •Directly proportional to creatinine production •Inversely related to GFR •Not affected by protein or nitrogen production or rate of fluid flow through tubules • Related to muscle mass

Plasma creatinine

31

Used if values of plasma creatinine are affected by muscle disease •Serial determination of urine is done and is currently the most reliable method of assessing GFR

Creatinine clearance

32

The most reliable test to distinguish pre-renal azotemia from tubular necrosis •Requires simultaneous collected urine and blood samples

Tubular function test

33

Consists of a fluid-filled catheter inserted into a cerebral ventricle and connected to an external pressure transducer

Ventriculostomy catheter

34

Reflects spontaneous and on-going electrical activity in the brain

Electro physiologic monitoring

35

Has capacity to monitor global neurologic electrical activity

Electroencephalography

36

Can assess pathways not detected by the conventional electroencephalogram (EEG

Evoked potential monitoring

37

Monitoring of therapy for status epilepticus and detecting early changes associated with cerebral ischemia. •Can be used to adjust the level of sedation, especially if high-dose barbiturate therapy is being used to manage elevated ICP

EEG

38

A noninvasive method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamics. •Measurements of middle and anterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity are useful for the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

Trans cranial Doppler ultrasound

39

Measures relationship of blood flow to O2 consumption

Jugular venous oximetry

40

Volume of air moved in or out of the lung in a single breath

Tidal volume