Physiological & Acoustic Phonetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiological & Acoustic Phonetics Deck (20):
1

coarticulation

the influence of 1 phoneme upon another in production & perception wherein 2 different articulators move simultaneously to produce 2 different speech sounds

2

mass & elasticity

properties of a medium
affecting sound transmission

3

sinusoidal wave

sound wave with:
horizontal & vertical symmetry,
1 peak/crest & 1 valley/trough,
single frequency,
& result of simple harmonic motion

4

natural frequency

source of sound vibrates naturally,
affected by the mass & stiffness of vibrating body

5

octave

an indication of the interval between 2 frequencies

6

oscillation

back-&-forth movement of air molecules
bc of a vibrating object

7

fundamental frequency
or first harmonic

lowest frequency of a periodic wave

8

F1 variation

mostly as a result of tongue height

9

F2 variation

mostly as a result of tongue advancement

10

harmonics

tones that occur over the F0,
characterized as whole-# multiples of F0,
in a periodic complex sound

11

syllables

motor units
composed of onset, nucleus, & coda

12

suprasegmentals

gives running speech variety & meaning:
length of sounds,
stress,
rate of speech,
pitch,
volume,
juncture

13

acoustics

study of sound as a physical phenomenon

14

psychoacoustics

study of how humans respond
to sound as a physical phenomenon

15

sound

physically a compressional wave that causes a sensation,
exists as both a physical phenomenon & perceptual experience,
result of vibrations of an elastic object
propagated through waves of disturbances in molecules

16

pure tones

contain a single frequency,
result of simple harmonic motion

17

pitch

perceptual,
related to physical changes in frequency,
measured by # or cycles per second (Hz),
normal frequency range: 20-20,000 Hz

18

loudness

perceptual,
related to physical amplitude
(measured in dynes or newtons)
or intensity
(expressed in terms of decibels
at a certain sound pressure level)

19

decibel

1/10 of a bel

20

hearing level

minimum intensity of sound needed to stimulate auditory system,
normal conversational intensity: 50-70 dB SPL