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Flashcards in Physiology Deck (62):
1

Define the term tissue

A group of cells which have similar structures and a specialised function

2

Define the term Organ

Two or more types of primary tissues that work together to perform a particular function

3

Define a body system

A group of organs that perform related functions to achieve a common goal

4

What is Homeostasis?

The maintenance of steady states within our bodies by co-ordinated physiological mechanisms

5

When does the response occur in a feedforward mechanism?

In anticipation to a change

6

When does the response occur in a feedback system?

After a change has happened

7

What is a phospholipid?

A glycerol backbone with two fatty acid chains

8

What is the function of the lipid bilayer?

Structure, hydrophobic end acts as a barrier and gives membrane fluidity

9

Give examples of integral membrane proteins

Ligand-binding receptors
Adhesion molecules
Pores and channels
Carrier molecules
Pumps
Enzymes

10

Give an example of a ligand binding receptor

Hormone receptor

11

Where do pumps get their energy from?

Use energy released from ATP hydrolysis

12

What is the function of cholesterol?

Gives the membrane structure and stability

13

Fick's law of diffusion - factors which effect the rate of diffusion

Magnitude of conc gradient
SA of membrane
Lipid solubility of substance
Molecular weight
Distance for diffusion to take place

14

What are the units of osmolarity?

Osmoles of solute per litre

15

Define tonicity

The effect a solution has on cell volume - has no units

16

Name the two types of carrier mediated transport and whether they require energy

Facillitated diffusion - no energy
Active transport - energy from ATP

17

Give an example of primary active transport

Na+K- pump

18

What is secondary active transport?

When energy is required but isn't used directly it is second hand energy - e.g. coupled with Na+

19

What is primary active transport?

When energy is required and used directly

20

Define membrane potential

The separation go opposing charges across a membrane

21

Is the membrane itself charged?

No - it is the the regions of intra and extracellular fluid which creates a charge across it

22

When is the resting membrane potential constant?

In non-excitable cells and excitable cells at rest

23

Where is the highest conc. of potassium?

Inside the cell

24

Where is the highest conc. of sodium and chlorine?

Outside the cell

25

Which direction is the conc. gradient for K+?

Outward

26

Which direction is the conc. gradient for Na+?

Inward

27

Which direction is the electrical gradient for K+?

Inward

28

What is the membrane potential at Ek?

-90mV

29

What is the membrane potential at Ena?

+61mV

30

At rest which ion is the membrane more permeable to?

Potassium

31

What is the resting membrane potential, Em?

-70mV

32

What does the nernst equation calculate?

The equilibrium potential taking into account a single ion

33

What does the goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation calculate?

The membrane potential taking into account contributions made by more than one ion

34

What is the charge aside a cell at rest?

Negative

35

Which hormones control glucose conc. in the absorptive and post-absorptive states?

Insulin and glucagon

36

Which hormones control glucose conc. in emergencies?

Adrenaline

37

Which hormones control glucose conc. during starvation?

Cortisol and growth hormone

38

What does each type of cell in the islets of Langerhan secrete?

Alpha - glucagon
Beta - Insulin, c peptide, amylin
Delta - somatostation
F cells - pancreatic polypeptide

39

Which hormone is the the hormone of the fed state?

Insulin

40

Which hormone is the hormone of the hungry state?

Glucagon

41

What does insulin do?

Convert glucose into glycogen

42

What does glucagon do?

Converts glycogen into glucose

43

What does the sympathetic stimulation do to insulin secretion?

Inhibits secretion

44

What does parasympathetic stimulation do to insulin secretion?

Stimulates secretion

45

Name three types of incretins

CCK, GLP-1 and GIP

46

which reactions does glucagon stimulate?

Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis

47

What is released from the adrenal gland in response to stress?

Adrenaline and cortisol

48

Which lobe is growth hormone secreted from?

Anterior pituitary gland

49

What is meant by mean arterial blood pressure?

The average arterial blood pressure during a single cardiac cycle which involves contraction and relaxation of the heart

50

What is the formula for MAP?

MAP = [(2xdiastolic) + systolic]/3 or MAP = diastolic blood pressure + 1/3(systolic - diastolic)

51

Which cranial nerve is involved in the carotid baroreceptor signalling?

IXth - glossopharyngeal

52

Which cranial nerve is involved in the aortic baroreceptor signalling?

Xth - Vagus

53

What relationship is CO and TPR to MAP?

MAP = CO x TPR

54

What is cardiac output?

The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle of the heart per minute

55

What is the relationship between SV, HR and CO?

CO = SV x HR

56

What is stroke volume?

The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle of the heart per heart beat

57

What is the normal core body temperature?

37.8°C

58

How can the body gain heat?

Through metabolic heat, radiation, convection and conduction

59

How does heat loss occur?

Through convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation

60

Where is the control centre for body temperature?

Hypothalamus

61

Which part of the hypothalamus is activated by the cold?

Posterior hypothalamus

62

Which part of the hypothalamus is activated by warmth?

Anterior hypothalamus