Flashcards in Physiology and Histology Deck (130)
Which two hormones control glucose concentration in absorptive and post-absorptive states?
Insulin and Glucagon
Which hormone controls glucose levels in emergencies?
Which two hormones control glucose levels during starvation?
Cortisol and growth hormone
What is the temperature range that indicates fever?
38 to 40 degrees C
What are the temperature limits for hyperthermia and hypothermia?
Hyperthermia >40 degrees C
Hypothermia < 35 degrees C
4 ways heat can be transferred
What are the membrane potentials of sodium and potassium and what is the resting membrane potential of a cell?
NA+ = +60mV
K+ = -90mV
Resting membrane potential of a cell = -70mV
What happens in hypertonic conditions?
Water diffuses out of the cell and the cell shrinks
There is no net movement of water
What happens in hypotonic conditions?
Water diffuses into the cell and the cell swells
Describe the composition of a phospholipid molecule
Hydrophilic head - Polar, -ve charge (phosphate, glycerol)
Hydrophobic tail , Non-polar, non-charged (fatty acid chain)
What are the three types of muscle and describe their composition
Skeletal - Striated, voluntary
Smooth- Not striated, involuntary
Cardiac - Striated
What are three types of intercellular junctions?
What three components make up the cytoskeleton
What is the function of Glia cells and what are they called depending on where they are found?
They support and protect neurons
Glia in he CNS; astrocytes, Ogliodendrocytes
Glia in the PNS; Schwann cells
What does sympathetic and parasympathetic do to insulin secretion?
Sympathetic - inhibits insulin secretion
Parasympathetic - stimulates insulin secretion
What are the two motor proteins called which are responsible for transportation within the cell?
Dynein and Kinesin
What 5 points does Fick's Law of diffusion include with reference to movement across the cell membrane?
The greater the con gradient, the faster the diffusion rate
The larger the S.A, the greater the diffusion rate
The greater the lipid solubulity, the greater the diffusion rate
The greater the molecular weight, the slower the diffusion rate
The greater the distance, the slower diffusion rate
What is meant by primary and secondary active diffusion
PRIMARY - Energy is required to directly move a substance against its concentration gradient (ATP is hydrolysed for energy)
SECONDARY - Utilises an existing concentration gradient to move a molecule against its concentration gradient(ATP is not used - instead an existing energy source is)
What two mechanisms are examples of secondary active transport?
SYMPORT (co-transport) -Same direction
ANTIPORT (exchange/ counter transport) -Opposite directions
What are the three layers of blood vessels?
List 5 types of white blood cells
Which cells in the islets of langerhan in the pancreas produce insulin and which produce glucagon?
A cells - GLUCAGON
B cells - INSULIN
Where are lipids synthesised within a cell?
The Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum
Where are ribosomes produced within a cell?
What structure is avascular polarised tissue which forms cohesive sheets and covers surfaces and lines cavities?
What kind of muscle is striated and composed of very long elongated cells with multiple nuclei
What kind of muscle has a branched structure, is striated and has just one nuclues?
Which type of glia in the CNS are responsible for producing myelin?