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Flashcards in Physiology and Histology Deck (130)
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1

Which two hormones control glucose concentration in absorptive and post-absorptive states?

Insulin and Glucagon

2

Which hormone controls glucose levels in emergencies?

Adrenaline

3

Which two hormones control glucose levels during starvation?

Cortisol and growth hormone

4

What is the temperature range that indicates fever?

38 to 40 degrees C

5

What are the temperature limits for hyperthermia and hypothermia?

Hyperthermia >40 degrees C
Hypothermia < 35 degrees C

6

4 ways heat can be transferred

Evaporation
Radiation
Conduction
Convection

7

What are the membrane potentials of sodium and potassium and what is the resting membrane potential of a cell?

NA+ = +60mV
K+ = -90mV

Resting membrane potential of a cell = -70mV

8

What happens in hypertonic conditions?

Water diffuses out of the cell and the cell shrinks

9

Isotonic conditions

There is no net movement of water

10

What happens in hypotonic conditions?

Water diffuses into the cell and the cell swells

11

Describe the composition of a phospholipid molecule

Hydrophilic head - Polar, -ve charge (phosphate, glycerol)
Hydrophobic tail , Non-polar, non-charged (fatty acid chain)

12

What are the three types of muscle and describe their composition

Skeletal - Striated, voluntary
Smooth- Not striated, involuntary
Cardiac - Striated

13

What are three types of intercellular junctions?

Occluding
Anchoring
Communicating

14

What three components make up the cytoskeleton

Microfilaments,
Intermediate filaments,
Microtubules.

15

What is the function of Glia cells and what are they called depending on where they are found?

They support and protect neurons

Glia in he CNS; astrocytes, Ogliodendrocytes
Glia in the PNS; Schwann cells

16

What does sympathetic and parasympathetic do to insulin secretion?

Sympathetic - inhibits insulin secretion
Parasympathetic - stimulates insulin secretion

17

What are the two motor proteins called which are responsible for transportation within the cell?

Dynein and Kinesin

18

What 5 points does Fick's Law of diffusion include with reference to movement across the cell membrane?

The greater the con gradient, the faster the diffusion rate
The larger the S.A, the greater the diffusion rate
The greater the lipid solubulity, the greater the diffusion rate
The greater the molecular weight, the slower the diffusion rate
The greater the distance, the slower diffusion rate

19

What is meant by primary and secondary active diffusion

PRIMARY - Energy is required to directly move a substance against its concentration gradient (ATP is hydrolysed for energy)
SECONDARY - Utilises an existing concentration gradient to move a molecule against its concentration gradient(ATP is not used - instead an existing energy source is)

20

What two mechanisms are examples of secondary active transport?

SYMPORT (co-transport) -Same direction
ANTIPORT (exchange/ counter transport) -Opposite directions

21

What are the three layers of blood vessels?

Tunica intima,
Tinca media,
Tunica adventitia

22

List 5 types of white blood cells

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Monocytes
Lymphocytes

23

Which cells in the islets of langerhan in the pancreas produce insulin and which produce glucagon?

A cells - GLUCAGON
B cells - INSULIN

24

Where are lipids synthesised within a cell?

The Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum

25

Where are ribosomes produced within a cell?

The nucleolus

26

What structure is avascular polarised tissue which forms cohesive sheets and covers surfaces and lines cavities?

Epithelium

27

What kind of muscle is striated and composed of very long elongated cells with multiple nuclei

skeletal muscle

28

What kind of muscle has a branched structure, is striated and has just one nuclues?

Cardiac muscle

29

Which type of glia in the CNS are responsible for producing myelin?

Ogliodendrocytes

30

What 3 components make up the cytoskeleton?

Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments, Microtubules