Physiology- Clinical Correlations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology- Clinical Correlations Deck (39):
1

Montelukast

Drug that prevents formation of leukotrienes (FA derivative hormone)

Long term control of asthma or allergy

Intro to endo

2

DM type 1 failure in endocrine control

Hormone concentration of insulin too low

3

Disease resulting in too low or absent insulin receptor

DM2
Insulin insensitivity

4

When to drink thyroid hormone replacement?

Morning (normal secretion is in the morning, low at night)

5

Type of regulation of GnRH infusion?

Pulsatile secretion (episodic control)
Once every hour

6

Explain patho of hypogonadism from anabolic steroid abuse

Excess intake of exogenous testosterone builds muscle (anabolic) but causes feedback inhibition on LH and GnRH causing a decrease in endogenous testosterone production by testis resulting in hypogonadism

7

Cause of hormone resistance

Failure to couple downstream effector pathways
Receptor mutation

8

Effect of endocrine tumors

Hormone excess

9

Cause of hormone excess

Endocrine tumors
Autoantibodies (mimic hormone excess)

10

AIS (receptor, chromosome, symptoms)

Dihydrotestosterone receptor
X chromosome (Xq11-q12)
Female ext genitalia (short vagina)
- uterus
- cervix
+abdominal testis (remove can cause testicular seminoma)

Chromosomally male phenotypically female

11

Central DI

Dilute urine due to ADH deficiency
-tumors
-hypophysectomy
- craniopharygiomas (hypothalamic tumors)
-inflitrive lesions of CNS

12

Peripheral/Nephrogenic DI

Dilute urine due to faulty ADH action
-chronic renal disease
-pyelonephritis, polycystic disease (common)
-drugs: lithium, methoxyfurane, anesthesia
-congenital (lack of V2 receptors)

13

SIADH

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

Inability to suppress ADH secretion
-less urine
-facultative water reabsorption (hyponatremia, hypoosmolality)

14

Increased enzyme in hyperthyroidism

D3

15

Enzyme increased in hypoparathyroidism

D2 (high affinity to maintain brain T3 levels)

16

Enzyme that is paradoxically increased in hyperthyroidism

D1 (increases T3 further)

17

How long can stored iodide in thyroid protect against iodide deficiency?

2 months

18

Goiter

Enlarged thyroid gland

19

Cause of endemic goiter and hormonal effect

Lack of adequate iodine in the diet

Low thyroid hormone and elevated TSH

20

Thyrotoxicosis effect on heart

Palpitations
Atrial fibrillation
Mitral valve prolapse

21

Temperature tolerance of hyperthyroidism

Heat intolerance

22

Temperature tolerance of hypothyroidism

Cold intolerance (Low T3 to generate heat)

23

Differentiate primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism

Primary- low T3 and T4 normal TSH
Secondary and tertiary- all low

24

Cretinism (name, cause, effect)

Congenital hypothyroidism
Caused by hypothyroidism in fetus or childhood
- severe intellectual disability
- short stature
- incomplete skeletal development

25

Ouabain

Na/K ATPase inhibitor
Can inhibit iodine uptake to thyroid (NIS)

26

Pendrin mutation

Goiter a d hearing loss (no I uptake, no T3/4 made, TSH endures without feedback, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyroid gland)

27

Megalin

LDL endocytic receptor in the thyroid follicle lumen required for TG endocytosis

28

Pheochromocytoma (def/cause, location, elevated hormone, symptoms)

Tumor of chromaffin cells of AM
hypersecretion of catech
High nor in blood
Hypertension, headache, sweating, anxiety, palpitation, chest pain, orthostatic hypotension (downreg of nor receptors)

29

Most common cause of hyperfunctioning A. Medulla

Pheochromocytoma

30

Thyroid storm (most intense hyperthyroidism)

Grave's

31

Inactivating CYP11A1 mutation

Lipoid ZF
No cortisol
No gonadal steroid production
Normal placental steroid production

32

Therapeutic affect of glucocorticoid analogue drugs

Antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant

33

Analogue given during organ transplants?

Glucocorticoid analogue (immunosuppressant)

34

Effect of deficient and excessive cortisol on blood

Cortisol stimulates EPO
deficient: anemia
Excess: polycythemia

35

Cushing's disease

Chronically elevated cortisol in otherwise well fed person

36

Excessive cortisol effect on bone

Osteoporosis
Direct: inhibits osteoblst activity
Indirect: lowers renal and GI Ca absorption --> low blood Ca--> increase PTH --> increase bone resorption

37

Disease presenting with bruises

Cushing's
Excessive cortisol inhibits fibroblast and collagen proliferation, skin thins, degraded Ct support of capillaries, capillary injury = bruising

38

Pathophysio of ulcers due to cortisol

Cortisol stimulates GI secretion even if it is in the fasted state

39

Ca and Pi levels after tissue damage

Hyperphosphatemia (10 fold more in soft tissues)
Acute hypocalcemia (P complexes with Ca)