Physiology Midterm 2 Flashcards Preview

Physiology 2 > Physiology Midterm 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology Midterm 2 Deck (326):
1

What is the number role of the kidneys?

Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure

2

Role of the kidney?

1. Regulation of extracellular fluid and blood pressure 2. Regulate plasma osmolarity 3. Regulates ion balance 4. Regualtes plasma pH 5. Excretion of waste (endogenous and exogenous) 6. Endocrine (erythropoietin and renin and Ca2+ homesostasis)

3

Location of a cortical nephron?

Stays in the cortex of the kidney

4

Location of a juxtamedullary nephron?

Dives down from cortex into the medulla of kidney

5

How many portal systems are there in the body?

3 (2 capillary beds...hypothalamus/ant. pit. and kidney and liver)

6

Renal portal system for a cortical nephron?

Renal artery, branches of smaller arteries then arterioles in cortex, afferent arterioles, glomerular capillaries, efferent arterioles, peritubular capillaries, venules, veins, renal vein, vena cava

7

Renal portal system for a juxtamedullary nephron?

Renal artery, branches of smaller arteries then arterioles in cortex, afferent arterioles, glomerular capillaries, efferent arterioles, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta, venules, veins, renal vein, vena cava

8

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Association between ascending limb of Loop of Henle and afferent/efferent arteriole

9

What is the renal corpuscle?

Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

10

How much plasma does the kidney process per day, and how much urine is excreted?

180 L/plasma per day and 1.5L urine/day

11

How much of the fluid that passes through the kidneys reabsorbed?

99%

12

Where does filtration happen in the kidney?

Renal corpuscle (glomerulus and Bowman's capsule)

13

Equation for the amount of urine excreted?

Amount filtered - amount reabsorbed + amount secreted = amount excreted

14

Where is the filtrate from the kidney most similar to plasma?

At the renal corpuscle...the only thing that is different is it doesn't have blood cells and less protein

15

Where does iso-osmotic reabsorption occur?

The proximal tubule (70% of fluid and solute is reabsorbed)

16

By the time the fluid in the kindeys gets to the ascending loop of Henle, how much of the filtrate has been reabosorbed?

90%

17

Where does reabsorption happen in the kidneys?

All along the peritubular capillaries from the proximal tubule to the collecting duct

18

Where does fine tuning and water/salt balance and endocrine control happen in the kidney?

The distal tubule/collecting duct

19

How much of the plasma moves out of the glomerular capillaries into the tubules?

approximately 20%, with the rest entering the efferent arterioles

20

What is the filtration fraction?

% of total plasma volume that enters into tubule

21

Barriers to filtration in the renal corpuscle?

Glomerular capillary endothelium, basement membrane, epithelium of Bowman's capsule

22

How does the endothelium of glomerular capillaries create a barrier to filtration?

The fenestrated capillaries allow most substances to pass except for blood cells and most proteins (repelled by negatively charged proteins on pore surfaces)

23

How does the basement membrane act as a barrier to filtration in the renal corpuscle?

It is a layer of ECM between capillary endothelium and epithelium of Bowman's capsule. It acts as a coarse sieve, keeping most proteins in plasma

24

How does the epithelium of Bowman's capsule act as a barrier to filtration?

It has gaps between foot processes of podocytes that leave narrow slits close my semi-porous membrane

25

What are the 2 unique proteins that are expressed of the membrane of the filtration slits in the kidney?

Nephrin and podocin

26

What force is driving filtration in the glomerulus?

Hydrostatic pressure and the leakiness of the barrier keep net filtration HIGH...GFR = 180 L/day, plasma volume is approx. 3 L

27

Factors that influence GFR?

Net filtration pressure and filtration coefficient (surface area of glomerular capillaries and permeability of the interface)

28

Is GFR influences by changes in blood pressure?

NO, lots of autoregulation

29

If the resistance in the afferent arteriole of the kidney increased what would happen?

Renal blood flow would decrease, hydrostatic blood pressure would drop, lowering GFR

30

What would happen if resistance in the efferent arteriole in the increased?

Renal blood flow would decreases, but hydrostatic increases, which INCREASES GFR

31

Why does blood pressure have to be regulated so heavily in the kidneys?

High pressures will damage glomerulus capillaries

32

What is the myogenic response in the kidneys?

Intrinsic response of arteriole smotoh muscle to pressure changes. Vasoconstriction in response to increased blood pressure

33

What is tubuloglomerular feedback?

1. Increase in GFR 2. Increased flow through tubules 3. Increased flow of NaCl past macula densa 4. Paracrine signal from macula dense acts on afferent arteriole 5. Afferent arteriole constricts 6. Decrease in renal blood flow 7. Decrease in hydrostatic pressure 8. Decreased GFR

34

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Area in nephron where ascending loop of Henle/distal tubule, afferent and efferent arterioles are close to one other. Comtains the macula densa and granular cells that help to regulate GFR

35

Autonomic effects on GFR that can override the myogenic response and tubuloglomerular feedback in the kindeys?

Sympathetic innervation of afferent and efferent arterioles that in extreme conditions (severe dehydration and bleeding out) causes a sympathetic vasoconstriction due to a drop in blood pressure, which will decrease GFR

36

Endocrine effects on GFR?

Angiotension II (potent vasoconstrictor) and Prostaglandins (vasodilators). Bothe can also affect the filtration coefficient through actions on podocytes (alter size of slits) and mesengial cells (shapes of glomerular capillaries)

37

Why doesn't the kidney only filter the 1% that is excreted?

Filtration removes foreign/toxic substances in addition to endogenous materials (high rate of filtration quickly clears these substances) and filtering ions and water simplifies their regulation (material reaching distal tubule that is not needed for homeostasis passes into urine)

38

Steps in governing tubular reabsorption?

1. Na+ is reabsorbed by active transport 2. Electrochemical gradient drives anoin reabsorption 3. Water moves by osmosis, following solute reabsorption. Concentrations of other solutes increase as fluid volume in lumen decreases 4. Permeable solutes reabsorbed by diffusion through membrane transporters of by paracellular pathways

39

Paracellular pathway in kidneys?

Molecules through cell-cell junctions

40

Epithelial/trans-cellular transport in kidneys?

Cross of the apical and basolateral membranes of epithelial cells. Mechanism depends on driving force...down gradient = leak channels or facilitated diffusion and against gradient = primary or indirect active transport

41

Steps in active transport of Na+ in proximal tubule?

1. Na+ enters cell through various membrane proteins, moving down its electrochemical gradient 2. Na+ pumped out basolateral side of cell by N+/K+ ATPase

42

Steps in Na+ - Linked Reabsoprtion?

1. Na+ moving down its electrochemical gradient uses SGLT transporter to pull glucose into the cell against its concentration gradient 2. Glucose doffuses out basolateral side of cell using GLUT protein 3. Na+ pumped out by Na+/K+ ATPase

43

How are amino acids, lactate, Krebs cycle intermediates, phsophate, and sulphate reabsrobed?

Apical symporter + basolateral facilitated diffusion carrier or ion exchanger

44

Steps in the passive reabsoprtion of urea?

1. Na+ and other solutes reabsorbed at proximal tubule (via ENaC, Na+/K+ ATPase) 2. Water follows by osmosis 3. Loss of water from tubular fluid results in higher urea concentration in tubule 4. Urea moves passiviely out of tubule through epithelial cells into ECF (paracellular route)

45

What is the renal threshold?

Plasma concentration of a substance at which Tm occurs

46

How is interstitial fluid able to be reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries?

Lower hydrostatic pressure in the peritubular capillaries results in net reabosprtion of interstitial fluid

47

What is secretion in the kindeys?

Transfer from the extracellular fluid to tubular fluid...very specific and depends on membrane transporters

48

What are the major ions that are secreted for homeostatic regulation?

K+ and H+...endogenous materials and xenobiotics are also secreted

49

Steps in the secretion of organic anions at the proximal tubule?

1. Direct active transport. The Na+/K+ ATPase keeps the concentration of intracellular Na+ low 2. Secondary indirect active transport. NaSC cotransportoer concentrates dicarboxylate inside the cell using energy stored in Na+ concentration gradient 3. Tertiary indirect active transport. Basolateral OAT transporters concentrates organic anions (OA-) inside cell, using energy stored in dicarbodylate gradient

50

What is a naDC?

Na+-dicarboyxylate cotransporters on both the apical and basolateral membranes. Transports dicarboxylates such as citrate, oxaloacetate and alpha ketoglutarate

51

Organic anion transporters?

Able to transport range of anions...endogenous (bile salts) and exogenous (benzoate, salicyclate, and saccharine)

52

Composition of urine versus filtrate?

Glucose, AAs, proteins, and other useful metabolites gone. Waste products much more concentrated (water and ions variable depending on needs)

53

Formula for clearance from the kidney?

Clearance = excretion rate of X (mg/min) / concentration of substance in plasma (mg/mL)

54

What molecules are used as indicators of GFR?

Inulin and creatinine

55

Less of substance in urine than filtered?

Net reabsorption

56

More of substance in urine than was filtered?

Secreted

57

No change in the amount that was filtered and what is in urine?

Only filtration

58

Formula for filtration of a substance?

Concentration of substance in plasma x GFR

59

Opening between bladder and urthera is guarded by what 2 sphincters?

Internal -- smooth muscle (continuation of bladder wall) External -- skeletal muscle (tonic stimulation from CNS keeps it closed most of the time)

60

The simple spinal reflect of micturitoin (urination)?

Bladder fills, activates stretch receptors, afferent information travels to spinal cord and activates 2 sets of neurons, parasympathetic (acts on smooth muscle of bladder) and somatic (inhibits motor neurons to external sphincter)

61

Ions that kidney helps maintain homeostatic levels of?

Na+, Ck-, K+, H+, Ca2+, HPO42-, HCO3- (ECF volume and osmolarity)

62

Can the kidney replace lost water?

NO! Drinking is the only way to replace lost water, and the kidney can only conserve water.

63

Response to decreased blood volume and blood pressure?

Volume receptors in atria and carotid/aortic baroreceptors decrease firing rate. Trigger homeostatic reflix. Cardiovascular system decreases CO and vasoconstricts blood vessels. Increase thirst increases ECF and ICF. Kindeys conserve H2O to minimize further water loss.

64

Response to increased blood volume and blood pressure?

Volume receptors in atria, endocrine cells in atria, and carotid and aortic baroreceptors increase firing rate. Triggers homeostatic reflex. Cardiovascular system decreases CO and causes vasodilation. Kindeys excrete salts and water in urine to decrease ECF and ICF volume, both of which decrease blood pressure.

65

Amount of water gained throughout the day?

2.2 L from food/drink and 0.3 L/day from metabolism (aerobic respiration produces Co2 and H2O)

66

Amount of water lost throughout the day?

Insensible water loss from lungs and skin 0.9 L/day, urine 1.5L, and feces 2.5L

67

Water balance in the body?

0 L

68

Diuresis occurs because?

Need to eliminate excess water = dilute pee = 50 mOsM

69

Extremely concentrated urine occurs when?

Body needs to conserve water (antidiuretics)

70

How does water cross cell membranes?

Leaks through lipid bilayer (happens in most cells but doesn't explain the rapid movement through some cells) and travels through aquaporins

71

Number of aquaporins expressed on apical or basolateral surfaces of epithelial cells in various regions of renal tubules?

6

72

How is dilute urine produced?

Epithelial cells transport solutes but are impermeable to water...reduced expression of aquaporins = less water reabsorbed

73

How is concentrated urine produced?

Epithelial cells and surrounding interstitium are more salty than the tubular fluid, so high osmolarity of medullary interstitium allows urine to become concentrated as it flows through collecting duct

74

Osmolarity changes through a juxtamedullary nephron?

1. Isosmotic fluid leaving proximal tubule becomes progressively more concetrated in descending limb 2. Removal of solutes in thick ascending limb creates hposmotic fluid 3. Permeability to water and solutes in collecting ducts is regulated by hormones 4. Urine osmolarityy depends on reabsoprtion in collecting duct

75

The clearance of a substance X is...

the volume of plasma cleared of X per time

76

If the clearance rate of X is less than the amount filtered, then...

X is being REASORBED by the nephron

77

The renal threshold fro glucose is 300 mg/100 mL plasma. Your cousin, a Type I diabetic, is having trouble regulating her sugar levels. Her plasma glucose is 400 mg/100mL plasma. What would be true regarding glomerular filtration of glucose and excretion of glucose?

It would all be filtered, but not all reabsorbed, so she would excrete glucose in her urine/

78

Effect of vasopressin on collecting duct?

Collecting duct is freely permeable to water, so urine becomes concentrated. Vasopressin is not there, tubule is not permeable to water, causing dilute urine.

79

Steps for aquaporin insertion into apical membrane casued by vasopressin?

1. AVP binds to membrane receptor 2. Receptor activates cyclic AMP 2nd messenger system 3. AQP2 inserted into apical membrane 4. Water absorbed by osmosis into blood

80

What is membrane cycling?

Membrane vesicles containing aquaporin is added to plasma membrane by exocytosis and removed by endocytosis

81

What 2 things trigger release of vasopressin?

Increased plasma osmolarity and decreased blood volume/pressure

82

Why is it so important to regulate ECF osmolarity?

Affect cell size/volume = physical integrity of cells and tissues. Affects ionic strength = activity of macromolecules

83

Why does osmolarity fluctuate?

Variations in water intake/water loss and variations in Na+ intake/Na+ excretion

84

What are the consequences of osmotic perturbations?

Usually neurological. Hyperosmolarity causes seizures and death. Hyposmolarity causes headache/nausea/vomiting, leads to mental confusion, seizures, coma, death

85

Osmoreceptors?

Monitir plasma osmoloarity by increasing firing rate as osmolarity increases

86

Osmoreceptors are stimulated by?

Cell dehydration/shrinking

87

Where are peripheral osmoreceptors located?

Oropharyngeal cavity (back of mouth/throat) and within blood vessels that collect solutes absorbed from intestines.

88

What is the purpose of osmoreceptors?

Can detect osmotic strength of ingested materials and induce anticipatory responses. However, central osmoreceptors are the major points of regulation

89

Central osmoreceptors?

Cicumventricular organs (OVLT and subfornical organ) and supraoptic nucleus in hypothalamus (SON; origin of AVP-secreting neurons)

90

Secretion of AVP from hypothalamus?

1, AVP made and packaged in supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus 2. Vesicles are transported down the cell 3. Vesicles containing AVP are stored in posterior pituitary 4. AVP is released into blood

91

Decrease in BP on the control of vasopressin secretion?

BP decreased, carotid and aortic baroreceptors decreae firing rate, sensory neuron send AP to hypothalamus, hypothalamic neurons synthesizeAVP

92

Decrease blood volume in the control of vasopressin secretion?

Decreased atrial stretch, sensory neuron to hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus in hypothalamus makes AVP

93

Increased plasma osmolarity in the control of vasopressin secretion?

Hypothalamic osmoreceptors, interneurons to hypothalamus, supraoptic nuscleus makes AVP

94

Circadian rhythm in adults for AVP?

AVP increases at night so you conserve water and don't have to get up to pee. First pee in the morning is super concentrated!

95

What creates the salt gradient in the renal medulla?

High osmolarity in the medullary interstitium...creates osmotic gradient for reabsoprtion of water

96

Why doesn;t osmolarity of ICF decrease as water is drawn out of tubules?

The anatomical arrangement of Loop of Henle and vasa recta are very close to one another, so it allows for the transfer of water and solutes between the two vessels. This is a COUNTERCURRENT EXCHANGE SYSTEM

97

How does the countercurrenct mutiplier work in the renal medulla?

The ascending limb transports ions, but not water into the interstitium, which causes it to become saltier and the filtrate to become more dilute. More salt moves into the vasa recta. The descending limb transports water but doesn't transport ions, so water flows into vasa recta. This allows the interstitium to remain salty, allowing for concentrated urine to be produced.

98

Steps in ion transport in the thick ascending limb?

1. 1200 mOsm entering ascending loop (hypersosmotic) 2. NKCC symporters on apical membrane reabsorbs salt via secondary active transport (moves Na+, K+, and 2 Cl-) K+ and Cl- leave basolateral side via co-transporters and Na+ leaves basolateral side via Na/K ATPase 3. Water cannot follow solute 4. 100 mOsm leaving ascending loop (hyposmotic)

99

Purpose of Loop of Henle?

1. Pumping of Na+ and K+ in ascending limb is responsible for 25% Na+ and K+ reabsorption 2. Creates a salt gradient for the collecting duct that drive reabsoprtion of water in presence of AVP

100

If kidneys couldn't clear any salt, what would happen to blood pressure?

There would be an increaed water intake (1.1 L), which would increase in ECF volume, which would raise blood pressure/

101

What is responsible for most of the Na excretion?

The kidneys. Loss via feces and sweating minimal under normal conditions (vomiting, diarrhea, and heavy sweating are the exceptions)

102

Is Cl- regulated?

NO. Na+ regulated, Cl- normally follws via electrochemical gradient via NKCC and NaCl symporters

103

Is sweat hyperosmotic or hyposmotic?

Hyposmotic, losing more water than salt

104

Homeostatic response to salt ingestion?

1. Ingest NaCl 2. No change in volume, but increase in osmolarity 3. Vasopressin secreted, increaes renal water reabsorption and kidneys conserve water. 4. Thirst, increase water intake. 5. Increased renal water reabsorption and water intake causes an increase in ECF volume, which raises blood pressure and causes the kidneys to excrete more salt and water (slow response), which returns osmolarity to normal levels. 6. Increased blood pressure causes cardiovascular response to reflexively lower BP, volume and blood pressure to normal

105

Where is the only place Na+ reabsoprtion regulated?

The distal nephron. Unregulated in proximal tubule (always permeable to water) and ascending loop

106

Where is aldosterone synthesized?

Synthesized on demand in adrenal cortex and sent into bloodstream bound to carriers

107

Effects of aldosterone?

Rapid effects = modulation and existing pumps/channels Slow effects - drives transcription of genes with upstream aldosterone response elements, causing synthesis of new proteins and insertion of new pumps/channels

108

Target of aldosterone?

Principal cells (P cells) within epithelium of distal nephron

109

Steps in aldosterone response on P cells within epithelium of distal nephron?

1. Aldosterone binds to cytoplasmic receptor 2. Hormone-receptor complex initiates transcription in the nucleus 3. Translation and protein synthesis makes new protein channels and pumps 4. Aldosterone-induced protens modulate existing channels and pumps 5. Result is increased Na+ reabsoprtion and K+ secretion

110

Stimulus for aldosterone secretion?

Increased plasma [K+] monitored by cells in the adrenal cortex (protects against hyperkalemia) 2. Decrease in BP

111

Primary action of aldosterone?

Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion by increasing expression of channels (ENaC, ROMK), pumps (Na+/K+ ATPase)

112

Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)?

1. Angiotensinogen made in liver, circulates in plasma as an inactive precursor 2. Renin, secreted from granular cells in JGA of nephron, cleave angiotensinogen into angiotensis I 3. ACE (in endothelium of blood vessels) turns angiotensin I into angiotensin II 4. Ag II acts on adrenal cortex to synthesize aldosterone 5. Aldosterone works on principal cells in distal nephron

113

Cells that make renin?

Granular cells (JG cells)

114

What activates the RAS?

Low blood pressure and renin from kidney initiates pathway

115

How do granular cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus know when to release renin?

1. Granular cells themselves monitor blood pressure in afferent arteriole, release renin i n response to decreased BP 2. Sympathetic neurons from cardio control centre in medulla terminate on JG cells, part of the baroreceptor response to dec. BP 3. Paracrine feedback from macula densa cells in distal tubule, decreased flow rate, leads to increased renin release (and vice versa)

116

Thirst can be stimulated by what 2 things?

Osmoreceptors shrinking and Ang II acting centrally on hypthalamus

117

KNOW HOMEOSTATIC RESPONSE TO DROP IN BP!!!

How ANG II affects arterioles, cardio control centre, hypothalamus, adreno-cortex

118

How is hypertension treated through the RAS?

Blocking Ang II...ACE inhibitors (cannot make Ang II), angiotensin receptor blockers, and direct renin inhibitors (no Ang I)

119

What is atrial natriuretic peptide?

A peptide hormone that is produced/released from specialized mycoardial cells mostly in the atria that is released when these atrial cells stretch more than normal. Acts to oppose RAS

120

Mechanism of natriuretic peptide?

1. Acts on hypothalamus to decrease AVP 2. Acts on kidney to decrease Na+ reabsorption, increase GFR, and decrease renin, which increase Na+ and H2O secretion 3. Acts on adrenal cortex to decrease aldosterone 4. Acts on CCC to decrease sympathetic output

121

Main effect of natriuretic peptide?

Lowers BP

122

Why is the ECF concentration of K+ maintained in a narrow range, even though only 2% is found in the ECF?

It is a major determinant of resting membrane potential/excitability of excitable cells.

123

Hyperkalemia leads to what is regards to cell excitability?

Reduced concentration gradient, so K+ stays in cells = cell depolarizes

124

Hypokalemia leads to what changes in regards to cell excitability?

Greater concentration gradient, more K+ leaves cell = cell hyperpolarized (muscle weakness)

125

How is Na+ replaced?

Low Na+ triggers salt appetite, linked to ANG II and aldosterone (Na+ balance)

126

How is water replaced?

Thirst -- controlled by centres in hypothalamus, respond to hyperosomolarity and ANG II

127

Although dehydration and hemorrhaging both involve a low volume alarm, how does the response to dehydration differ from hemorrhaging?

Dehydration involves loss of more water than solute, so there is also a hyperosmolarity alarm (do NOT need renin and aldosterone). Hemorrhage involves equal loss of water and salt, so no hyperosmolarity alarm.

128

Normal plasma pH?

7.38-7.42

129

Why is H+ concentration heavily regulated?

Affects tertiary structure of proteins, which is related to enzyme function. Abnormal pH affects the nervous system (acidosis = CNS depression and alkalosis = hyperexcitability/twitch). pH disturbances are also assocaited with K+ disturbances (partly due to renal transporter, H/K+-ATPase)

130

Where does the H+ input come from in the body?

Fatty acids, amino acids, metabolism, lactic acid, ketoacids

131

What are some of the buffers in the body?

HCO3- in ECF, proteins/hemoglobin/phosphates in cells, phosphates/ammonia in urine

132

Where does the H+ output come from in the body?

Ventilation and Renal H+ output

133

What is the primary source of H+ in the cell?

The CO2 produced during aerobic respiration is the main source of acid in the body. CO2+H2)H2CO3HCO3+H+

134

What is carbonic anhydrase?

Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between CO2+H2) and HCO3- + H+

135

What is the first line of defence in pH homeostasis?

Buffers...combine with or release H+

136

2nd line of defence in pH homeostasis?

Ventilation...corrects 75% of disturbances and very rapid. Also can cause disturbances.

137

3rd line of defence in pH homeostasis?

Renal regualtion...slower, but highly effective. Receptor-mediated endocytosis, directly by excreting or reabsorbing H+ and indirectly by changing in the rate at which HCO3- buffer is reabsorbed or secreted

138

Hypoventilation effect on pH homeostasis?

Acidosis, reaction shift right

139

Hyperventilation effect on pH homeostasis?

Alkalosis, reaction shifts left

140

Respiratory compensation for acidosis?

Inc. in plasma pH works on carotid/aortic chemoreceptors and Inc. plasma CO2 works on central chemoreceptors --> both act on respiratory control centres --> inc. AP in somatic MN --> muscle of ventilation --> inc. rate and depth of breathing --> dec. plasma CO2 and dec. plasma H+

141

Transporters on the APICAL membrane that secrete H+ into urine?

1. Na+/H+ exchanger 2. H+ ATPase 3. H+ - K+ ATPase 4. Na-NH4 antiport

142

BASOLATERAL pump used to move bicarb back into plasma?

Na+ HCO3- symport. Moves Na+ and HCO3- out of epithelial cell into intersitium

143

Where does bicarb reabsorption happen?

Proximal tubule

144

How is bicarb reabsorption achieved in proximal tubule?

NO transporters on apical membrane, so indirect method used: filtered HCO3- --CA--> CO2 --CA in epithelial cell--> bicarb --basolateral pump--> interstitium

145

Fine-tuning of acid-base balance carried out where?

In the INTERCALATED CELLS in the DISTAL NEPHRON (interspersed with P cells)

146

Type A intercalated cells?

Secrete H+ and reabsorb bicarb to deal with acidosis

147

Type B intercalated cells?

Secrete bicarb and reabsorb H+ to deal with alkalosis

148

H+ / K+ ATPase is found on what membrane in Type A intercalated cells?

Apical

149

H+ / K+ ATPase is found on what membrane in Type B intercalated cells?

Basolateral

150

Primary causes of metabolic acidosis?

Increased acidity or loss of HCO3-

151

Primary cause of metabolic alkalosis?

Decreased acidity due to loss of H+

152

If primary cause of acid-base disturbance is respiratory, what mechanism corrects it?

Renal

153

If primary cause of acid-base disturbance is metabolic, what mechanism corrects it?

Respiratory and renal

154

Causes of respiratory acidosis?

Alveolar hypoventilation from respiratory depressions, asthma, fibrosis, severe pneumonia, and other diseases affecting breathing

155

Causes for metabolic acidosis?

Lactic acidosis/anaerobic metabolism, ketoacidosis (excessive breakdown of fats or certain AAs in type I diabetics and low carb diets), ingestion of certain toxins OR loss of bicarb from diarrhea

156

Causes of respiratory alkalosis?

Hyperventilation...excessive artifical ventilation or anxiety-drive hyperventilation

157

Causes of metabolic alkalosis?

Loss of H+ from stomach (excessive vomiting) and ingestion of excessive bicarb-based antacids

158

The ascending Loop of Henle is permeable to water...

NEVER...AVP works only on collecting duct

159

What is responsible for the formation of salt gradient in renal medulla?

Ascending limb must transport ions from tubule to interstitium

160

Inhibition of the NKCC transporter on the apical membrane of the ascending limb would result in?

Inhibit Na and Cl reabsoprtion, disruption of salt gradient, and increased urine production ----> loop diuretics

161

Responses to increased amount of salt?

Increased AVP and thirst

162

What are the stimuli for aldosterone secretion?

Hyperkalemia and decreased BP

163

Digestion?

Chemical and mechanical breakdown of foods into smaller units that can be taken up across the intestinal epithelium into the body

164

Absorption?

Active or passive transfer of substances from the lumen of the GI tract to the ECF

165

Motility?

Movement of material in the GI tract as a result of muscle contraction

166

Secretion in the GI?

Refers to both the transepithelial transfer of H2O and ions from the ECF to the digestive tract lumen and the release of substances synthesized by GI epithelial cells

167

Parts of the stomach?

Upper fundus, central body, lower antrum, and the pylorus (gatekeeps between the sotmach and the small intestine)

168

Most digestion occurs where?

small intestine

169

Parts of the small intestine?

Duadenum, jejunum, and ileum

170

Parts of large intestine?

Colon and rectum

171

4 layers of GI tract?

1. inner mucosa layer facing the lumen 2. Submucosa 3. Muscularis externa/smooth muscle 4. Covering of connective tissue called the serosa

172

3 layers of the mucosa?

1. Single layer of epithelial cells 2. lamina propria, subepithelial connective tissue that holds the epithelium in place 3. Muscularis mucosae, a thin layer of smooth muscle

173

Villi in the stomach are called?

Gastric glands

174

Villi in the stomach are called?

Crypts

175

Submucosa contains?

Connective tissues with larger blood and lymph vessels. Also contains the submucosal plexus, one of the 2 major networks of the enteric nervous system

176

2 parts and purpose of enteric nervous system?

Submuscal plexus and myenteric plexus, helps to coordinate digestive function

177

Purpose of submucosal plexus?

Innervates cells in the epithelial layer as well as smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae (aka Meissner's plexus?

178

Purpose of myenteric plexus?

Controls and coordinates the motor activty of the muscularis externa

179

What does the muscularis externa primarily consist of ?

An inner circular layer of muscle (decreaess diameter of lumen) and an outer longitudinal layer (shortens the tube) Also an incomplete oblique muscle between the circular muscles and the submucosa

180

What is peristalsis?

Moving of food from mouth to anus

180

What is peristalsis?

Moving of food from mouth to anus

181

What are the 2 major patterns of contractions in the gut?

Peristalsis and Segmental contractions

181

What are the 2 major patterns of contractions in the gut?

Peristalsis and Segmental contractions

182

What do segmental contractions do?

Mix/churn...maximizes exposure to digestive enzymes and epithelial

182

What do segmental contractions do?

Mix/churn...maximizes exposure to digestive enzymes and epithelial

183

What type o muscle is the majority of gut muscle?

Smooth muscle connected by gap junctions

183

What type o muscle is the majority of gut muscle?

Smooth muscle connected by gap junctions

184

What parts of the gut are tonically contracted (minutes to hours)?

Smooth muscle sphincters and the anterior part of the stomach (keeps food from moving backward)

184

What parts of the gut are tonically contracted (minutes to hours)?

Smooth muscle sphincters and the anterior part of the stomach (keeps food from moving backward)

185

What parts of the gut undergo phasic contractions (few seconds)?

Posterior part of the stomach and small intestine

185

What parts of the gut undergo phasic contractions (few seconds)?

Posterior part of the stomach and small intestine

186

What are migrating motor complexes?

Contractions that slowly sweep down stomach to large intestine (every 90 minutes) from the stomach to the large intestine

186

What are migrating motor complexes?

Contractions that slowly sweep down stomach to large intestine (every 90 minutes) from the stomach to the large intestine

187

What type of contractions occur during and after a meal?

Peristalic and segmental contractions

187

What type of contractions occur during and after a meal?

Peristalic and segmental contractions

188

What are slow wave potentials?

Potentials that fire at a very slow rate and don't reach threshold with each cycle. When threshold is reached, voltage gated Ca2+ channels in the muscle fibre open, Ca2+ enters, and the cell fires one or more action potentials.

188

What are slow wave potentials?

Potentials that fire at a very slow rate and don't reach threshold with each cycle. When threshold is reached, voltage gated Ca2+ channels in the muscle fibre open, Ca2+ enters, and the cell fires one or more action potentials.

189

How is the degree of contraction in gut smooth muscle graded?

Longer wave = longer time for Ca2+ to enter = larger contraction.

189

How is the degree of contraction in gut smooth muscle graded?

Longer wave = longer time for Ca2+ to enter = larger contraction.

190

What influences the amplitude and duration of contraction in gut smooth muscle?

Neurotransmitters (autonomic input), hormones, and paracrine factors

190

What influences the amplitude and duration of contraction in gut smooth muscle?

Neurotransmitters (autonomic input), hormones, and paracrine factors

191

Where are slow waves the most frequent in the GI tract?

More frequent in the duodenum

191

Where are slow waves the most frequent in the GI tract?

More frequent in the duodenum

192

What sets the slow wave frequency in the GI tract smooth muscle?

Interstitial cells between layers of smooth muscle..."interstitial cells of Cajal"

192

What sets the slow wave frequency in the GI tract smooth muscle?

Interstitial cells between layers of smooth muscle..."interstitial cells of Cajal"

193

What is secreted in the GI tract?

Water and ions (secreted into lumen, then reabsorbed). Enzymes. Mucus. Salivia. Bile (from liver).

193

What is secreted in the GI tract?

Water and ions (secreted into lumen, then reabsorbed). Enzymes. Mucus. Salivia. Bile (from liver).

194

Transporters for the secretion of ions in the GI tract?

Na+/K+ ATPase, NKCC co-transporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NA+/H+ exchanger, and H+/K+ ATPase

194

Transporters for the secretion of ions in the GI tract?

Na+/K+ ATPase, NKCC co-transporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NA+/H+ exchanger, and H+/K+ ATPase

195

Ion channels for the secretion of water and ions in the GI tract?

ENaC, K+ channels, Cl- channels (including CFTR channel)

195

Ion channels for the secretion of water and ions in the GI tract?

ENaC, K+ channels, Cl- channels (including CFTR channel)

196

What is the pH in the lumen of the stomach?

As low as 1

196

What is the pH in the lumen of the stomach?

As low as 1

197

Acid secretion in parietal cells of stomach?

H+ is secreted from apical side via the H+/K+ ATPase and bicarb (from CO2 and OH-) is reabsorbed into the blood via the HCO3-/Cl- transporter. Cl- is transported into the stomach lumen, too.

197

Acid secretion in parietal cells of stomach?

H+ is secreted from apical side via the H+/K+ ATPase and bicarb (from CO2 and OH-) is reabsorbed into the blood via the HCO3-/Cl- transporter. Cl- is transported into the stomach lumen, too.

198

What is the alkaline tide?

The reabsorbtion of HCO3- into the blood in exchange for Cl- being abosorbed into parietal cell and H+ being secreted into lumen.

198

What is the alkaline tide?

The reabsorbtion of HCO3- into the blood in exchange for Cl- being abosorbed into parietal cell and H+ being secreted into lumen.

199

Bicarb from pancreas is released into?

Dueodenum to neutralize acid arriving from the stomach

199

Bicarb from pancreas is released into?

Dueodenum to neutralize acid arriving from the stomach

200

What do acinar cells do?

Secrete enzymes from pancreas into duodenum/small intestine

200

What do acinar cells do?

Secrete enzymes from pancreas into duodenum/small intestine

201

What do duct cells do in the pancreas?

Secrete bicarb solution

201

What do duct cells do in the pancreas?

Secrete bicarb solution

202

Bicarb secretion in pancreatic duct cell or duodenal cell?

Bicarb secreted via apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. Cl- enters via basolateral NKCC transporter and leaves via apical CFTR channel. Luminal Cl- the nreenters cell via Cl-/HCO3- exchanger

202

Bicarb secretion in pancreatic duct cell or duodenal cell?

Bicarb secreted via apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. Cl- enters via basolateral NKCC transporter and leaves via apical CFTR channel. Luminal Cl- the nreenters cell via Cl-/HCO3- exchanger

203

What does bicarb secretion in pancreatic duct cells and duodenal cells require?

A high expression of carbonic anhydrase (like kidney and RBCs)

203

What does bicarb secretion in pancreatic duct cells and duodenal cells require?

A high expression of carbonic anhydrase (like kidney and RBCs)

204

NaCl secretion in the small intestice, colon, and salivary glands?

1. Na+, K+, 2 Cl= enter via NKCC transporters 2. Cl- enters lumen through CFTR channel 3. Na+ is reabsorbed 4. Negative Cl- in lumen attracts Na+ by paracellular pathway. Water follows.

204

NaCl secretion in the small intestice, colon, and salivary glands?

1. Na+, K+, 2 Cl= enter via NKCC transporters 2. Cl- enters lumen through CFTR channel 3. Na+ is reabsorbed 4. Negative Cl- in lumen attracts Na+ by paracellular pathway. Water follows.

205

What does the ion secretion into lumen of pancreas or small intestine do?

Causes an osmotic drive that allows for the formation of a watery environment

205

What does the ion secretion into lumen of pancreas or small intestine do?

Causes an osmotic drive that allows for the formation of a watery environment

206

How is the gut lubrciated?

Crypt cells in small intestine and colon secrete iostonic saline solution that mixes with mucus secreted by goblet cells to lubricate gut contents

206

How is the gut lubrciated?

Crypt cells in small intestine and colon secrete iostonic saline solution that mixes with mucus secreted by goblet cells to lubricate gut contents

207

What are the pancreatic effects of cystic fibrosis?

Mutation in gene that codes for CFTR channel --> Cl- not transported into ducts ---> various effects including dec. Na+ and water transport into ducts ---> mucus still produced by goblet cells but greatly thickened due to lack of water ---> blockage of pancreatic ducts ---> exocrine secretions of pancreas not released (bicarb, enzymes) ---> back pressure/inflammation ---> damage to pancreas

207

What are the pancreatic effects of cystic fibrosis?

Mutation in gene that codes for CFTR channel --> Cl- not transported into ducts ---> various effects including dec. Na+ and water transport into ducts ---> mucus still produced by goblet cells but greatly thickened due to lack of water ---> blockage of pancreatic ducts ---> exocrine secretions of pancreas not released (bicarb, enzymes) ---> back pressure/inflammation ---> damage to pancreas

208

What are responsible for the secretion of enzymes in GI tract?

Either exocrine glands (pancreas, salivary) or epithelial cells of stomach and small intestine

208

What are responsible for the secretion of enzymes in GI tract?

Either exocrine glands (pancreas, salivary) or epithelial cells of stomach and small intestine

209

What regulated secretion of enzymes in GI tract?

Neural, hormonal, or paracrine signals. Usually parasympathetic stimulation (via vagus) stimulates enzyme secretion.

209

What regulated secretion of enzymes in GI tract?

Neural, hormonal, or paracrine signals. Usually parasympathetic stimulation (via vagus) stimulates enzyme secretion.

210

What does mucus primarily consist of?

Primarily of "mucins" -- a mixture of glycoproteins

210

What does mucus primarily consist of?

Primarily of "mucins" -- a mixture of glycoproteins

211

What cells produce mucus in GI tract?

Serous cells in salivary glands, mucous cells in stomach, and goblet cells in intestine

211

What cells produce mucus in GI tract?

Serous cells in salivary glands, mucous cells in stomach, and goblet cells in intestine

212

Signals for secretion of mucus?

Parasympathetic stimulation, various neuropeptides of enteric system, and cytokines (from immune cells...infection and inflammation increase mucus secretion)

212

Signals for secretion of mucus?

Parasympathetic stimulation, various neuropeptides of enteric system, and cytokines (from immune cells...infection and inflammation increase mucus secretion)

213

2 steps in secretion of saliva?

1. Fluid secreted by acinar cells similar to ECF (isotonic saline) 2. As it passes through ducts, epithelial cells take back Na+ and secrete K+, so that it eventually resembles intracellular fluid (duct cells have low H2O permeability, so water remains in saliva = hypo-osmotic)

213

2 steps in secretion of saliva?

1. Fluid secreted by acinar cells similar to ECF (isotonic saline) 2. As it passes through ducts, epithelial cells take back Na+ and secrete K+, so that it eventually resembles intracellular fluid (duct cells have low H2O permeability, so water remains in saliva = hypo-osmotic)

214

Signals fro saliva secretion?

Stimulation from parasympathetic nervous system. Inhibited by sympthatetic.

214

Signals fro saliva secretion?

Stimulation from parasympathetic nervous system. Inhibited by sympthatetic.

215

What is the largest internal organ in the body?

LIVER

215

What is the largest internal organ in the body?

LIVER

216

Where does the blood flow to the liver come from?

Oxygenated blood from hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein (rich in nutrients from the GI tract and hemoglobin breakdown products from the spleen)

216

Where does the blood flow to the liver come from?

Oxygenated blood from hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein (rich in nutrients from the GI tract and hemoglobin breakdown products from the spleen)

217

How does blood leave the liver?

Hepatic vein

217

How does blood leave the liver?

Hepatic vein

218

Bile synthesized in the liver is secreted into what for storage?

Secreted into the common hepatic duct for storage in the gall bladder

218

Bile synthesized in the liver is secreted into what for storage?

Secreted into the common hepatic duct for storage in the gall bladder

219

How is bile secreted into the lumen of the intestine?

Through the common bile duct

219

How is bile secreted into the lumen of the intestine?

Through the common bile duct

220

What are the hepatocytes of the liver organized into?

Hexagonal units called lobules

220

What are the hepatocytes of the liver organized into?

Hexagonal units called lobules

221

Pathway of bile in liver?

Hepatoctyes ---> bile canaliculi ---> bile ductules ---> common hepatic duct to gall bladder ---> common bile duct ---> sphincter of Oddi ---> duodenum

221

Pathway of bile in liver?

Hepatoctyes ---> bile canaliculi ---> bile ductules ---> common hepatic duct to gall bladder ---> common bile duct ---> sphincter of Oddi ---> duodenum

222

Percent breakdown of blood flow in lobule?

25% from hepatic artery (oxygenated) and 75% from hepatic portal vein (GI tract and spleen)

222

Percent breakdown of blood flow in lobule?

25% from hepatic artery (oxygenated) and 75% from hepatic portal vein (GI tract and spleen)

223

Blood flow through lobule?

Hepatic artivery or Hepatic Portal Vein ---> sinusoids (very gappy, lots of plasms filtered out to lymph, lots of proteins added in) ---? centralvein ---> hepatic vein

223

Blood flow through lobule?

Hepatic artivery or Hepatic Portal Vein ---> sinusoids (very gappy, lots of plasms filtered out to lymph, lots of proteins added in) ---? centralvein ---> hepatic vein

224

Key components of bile?

Bile salts (facilitae fat digestion), Bile pigments (bilirubin from hemoglobin breakdown)

224

Key components of bile?

Bile salts (facilitae fat digestion), Bile pigments (bilirubin from hemoglobin breakdown)

225

What is absorbed from the GI tract in the liver?

Bilirubin, nutrients, drugs, foreign substances

225

What is absorbed from the GI tract in the liver?

Bilirubin, nutrients, drugs, foreign substances

226

What is secreted into duodenum from the liver?

Bile salts, bilirubin, water, ions, and phospholipids

226

What is secreted into duodenum from the liver?

Bile salts, bilirubin, water, ions, and phospholipids

227

Metabolites to peripheral tissues via the hepatic vein from the liver?

Glucose, plasma proteins, urea, vitamin D, somatomedins, metabolites for excretion

227

Metabolites to peripheral tissues via the hepatic vein from the liver?

Glucose, plasma proteins, urea, vitamin D, somatomedins, metabolites for excretion

228

What metabolites are brought to the liver via the hepatic artery?

Bilirubin, hormone and drug metabolites, and nutrients

228

What metabolites are brought to the liver via the hepatic artery?

Bilirubin, hormone and drug metabolites, and nutrients

229

What is peristalsis?

Moving of food from mouth to anus

230

What are the 2 major patterns of contractions in the gut?

Peristalsis and Segmental contractions

231

What do segmental contractions do?

Mix/churn...maximizes exposure to digestive enzymes and epithelial

232

What type o muscle is the majority of gut muscle?

Smooth muscle connected by gap junctions

233

What parts of the gut are tonically contracted (minutes to hours)?

Smooth muscle sphincters and the anterior part of the stomach (keeps food from moving backward)

234

What parts of the gut undergo phasic contractions (few seconds)?

Posterior part of the stomach and small intestine

235

What are migrating motor complexes?

Contractions that slowly sweep down stomach to large intestine (every 90 minutes) from the stomach to the large intestine

236

What type of contractions occur during and after a meal?

Peristalic and segmental contractions

237

What are slow wave potentials?

Potentials that fire at a very slow rate and don't reach threshold with each cycle. When threshold is reached, voltage gated Ca2+ channels in the muscle fibre open, Ca2+ enters, and the cell fires one or more action potentials.

238

How is the degree of contraction in gut smooth muscle graded?

Longer wave = longer time for Ca2+ to enter = larger contraction.

239

What influences the amplitude and duration of contraction in gut smooth muscle?

Neurotransmitters (autonomic input), hormones, and paracrine factors

240

Where are slow waves the most frequent in the GI tract?

More frequent in the duodenum

241

What sets the slow wave frequency in the GI tract smooth muscle?

Interstitial cells between layers of smooth muscle..."interstitial cells of Cajal"

242

What is secreted in the GI tract?

Water and ions (secreted into lumen, then reabsorbed). Enzymes. Mucus. Salivia. Bile (from liver).

243

Transporters for the secretion of ions in the GI tract?

Na+/K+ ATPase, NKCC co-transporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NA+/H+ exchanger, and H+/K+ ATPase

244

Ion channels for the secretion of water and ions in the GI tract?

ENaC, K+ channels, Cl- channels (including CFTR channel)

245

What is the pH in the lumen of the stomach?

As low as 1

246

Acid secretion in parietal cells of stomach?

H+ is secreted from apical side via the H+/K+ ATPase and bicarb (from CO2 and OH-) is reabsorbed into the blood via the HCO3-/Cl- transporter. Cl- is transported into the stomach lumen, too.

247

What is the alkaline tide?

The reabsorbtion of HCO3- into the blood in exchange for Cl- being abosorbed into parietal cell and H+ being secreted into lumen.

248

Bicarb from pancreas is released into?

Dueodenum to neutralize acid arriving from the stomach

249

What do acinar cells do?

Secrete enzymes from pancreas into duodenum/small intestine

250

What do duct cells do in the pancreas?

Secrete bicarb solution

251

Bicarb secretion in pancreatic duct cell or duodenal cell?

Bicarb secreted via apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. Cl- enters via basolateral NKCC transporter and leaves via apical CFTR channel. Luminal Cl- the nreenters cell via Cl-/HCO3- exchanger

252

What does bicarb secretion in pancreatic duct cells and duodenal cells require?

A high expression of carbonic anhydrase (like kidney and RBCs)

253

NaCl secretion in the small intestice, colon, and salivary glands?

1. Na+, K+, 2 Cl= enter via NKCC transporters 2. Cl- enters lumen through CFTR channel 3. Na+ is reabsorbed 4. Negative Cl- in lumen attracts Na+ by paracellular pathway. Water follows.

254

What does the ion secretion into lumen of pancreas or small intestine do?

Causes an osmotic drive that allows for the formation of a watery environment

255

How is the gut lubrciated?

Crypt cells in small intestine and colon secrete iostonic saline solution that mixes with mucus secreted by goblet cells to lubricate gut contents

256

What are the pancreatic effects of cystic fibrosis?

Mutation in gene that codes for CFTR channel --> Cl- not transported into ducts ---> various effects including dec. Na+ and water transport into ducts ---> mucus still produced by goblet cells but greatly thickened due to lack of water ---> blockage of pancreatic ducts ---> exocrine secretions of pancreas not released (bicarb, enzymes) ---> back pressure/inflammation ---> damage to pancreas

257

What are responsible for the secretion of enzymes in GI tract?

Either exocrine glands (pancreas, salivary) or epithelial cells of stomach and small intestine

258

What regulated secretion of enzymes in GI tract?

Neural, hormonal, or paracrine signals. Usually parasympathetic stimulation (via vagus) stimulates enzyme secretion.

259

What does mucus primarily consist of?

Primarily of "mucins" -- a mixture of glycoproteins

260

What cells produce mucus in GI tract?

Serous cells in salivary glands, mucous cells in stomach, and goblet cells in intestine

261

Signals for secretion of mucus?

Parasympathetic stimulation, various neuropeptides of enteric system, and cytokines (from immune cells...infection and inflammation increase mucus secretion)

262

2 steps in secretion of saliva?

1. Fluid secreted by acinar cells similar to ECF (isotonic saline) 2. As it passes through ducts, epithelial cells take back Na+ and secrete K+, so that it eventually resembles intracellular fluid (duct cells have low H2O permeability, so water remains in saliva = hypo-osmotic)

263

Signals fro saliva secretion?

Stimulation from parasympathetic nervous system. Inhibited by sympthatetic.

264

What is the largest internal organ in the body?

LIVER

265

Where does the blood flow to the liver come from?

Oxygenated blood from hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein (rich in nutrients from the GI tract and hemoglobin breakdown products from the spleen)

266

How does blood leave the liver?

Hepatic vein

267

Bile synthesized in the liver is secreted into what for storage?

Secreted into the common hepatic duct for storage in the gall bladder

268

How is bile secreted into the lumen of the intestine?

Through the common bile duct

269

What are the hepatocytes of the liver organized into?

Hexagonal units called lobules

270

Pathway of bile in liver?

Hepatoctyes ---> bile canaliculi ---> bile ductules ---> common hepatic duct to gall bladder ---> common bile duct ---> sphincter of Oddi ---> duodenum

271

Percent breakdown of blood flow in lobule?

25% from hepatic artery (oxygenated) and 75% from hepatic portal vein (GI tract and spleen)

272

Blood flow through lobule?

Hepatic artivery or Hepatic Portal Vein ---> sinusoids (very gappy, lots of plasms filtered out to lymph, lots of proteins added in) ---? centralvein ---> hepatic vein

273

Key components of bile?

Bile salts (facilitae fat digestion), Bile pigments (bilirubin from hemoglobin breakdown)

274

What is absorbed from the GI tract in the liver?

Bilirubin, nutrients, drugs, foreign substances

275

What is secreted into duodenum from the liver?

Bile salts, bilirubin, water, ions, and phospholipids

276

Metabolites to peripheral tissues via the hepatic vein from the liver?

Glucose, plasma proteins, urea, vitamin D, somatomedins, metabolites for excretion

277

What metabolites are brought to the liver via the hepatic artery?

Bilirubin, hormone and drug metabolites, and nutrients