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Flashcards in PHYSIOLOGY/NEUROSCIENE Deck (122):
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PHYSIOLOICAL PSYCHOLOGY

- study of essential biology invovled in the study of mind

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Central nervous system (CNS) 2 parts:

1) brain
2) spinal cord

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Afferent fibers

- run toward CNS

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Efferent fibers

- run away from CNS

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) (2 parts)

- runs to and from the CNS
1) somatic nervous system
2) autonomic nervous system

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Somatic nervous system

- interacts with external environment by controlling voluntary of muscles

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Autonomic nervous system

- interacts with internal environment and responsible for flight and fight
- controls involuntary function e.g. digestion, blood circulation

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ANS and (2 parts)

- internal environment and involuntary controls that are responsible for flight or fight
1) sympathetic nervous system
2) parasympathetic nervous system

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Sympathetic nervous system

- arousal mechnicism e.g. circulation, threat and fear response

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Parasympathetic nervous system

- responsible for recuperation after arousal e.g. lowering heart rate, blood pressure

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Spinal Cord

- go to and from the brain
- inner core of gray matter (cell bodies and dendrites) and outer covering of white matter (nerve fibers, axon bundles, and myelin sheathing)

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Brain

- extension of the spine
- brain has developed from the base to the front

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Hind brain parts:

- myelencephalon (aka medulla)
- metencephalon (pons) and cerebellum
- reticular formation (oldest part of the brain)

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Myelencephalon (medulla) (hindbrain)

- reflexes, sleep, attention, movement

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Metecephalon (hindbrain)

- pons (connets brain to spine)
- cerebellum - mscle coordination, balance posture

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Reticular formation (hindbrain)

- some in hindbrain and midbrain
- oldest part of brain, alertness, thirts, sleep, involuntary muscles at heart

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Mesencehalon AKA midbrain

- tectum
- tegmentum

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Tectum (midbrain)

- controls vision and hearing

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Tegmetum (midbrain)

- rest of reticular formation
- sensorimotor system and analegesic effect opiates

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Forebrain - divided into what 2 parts:

- divided into dicephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus) and telencephalon (essentially rest of forebrain)

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Corticospinal tract (forebrain)

- connections between brain and spine

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Thamalmus (diencephalon)

-channels sensory info into cerebral cortex

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Hypothalamus (diencephalon)

- controls ANS biological motivations e.g. hunger, thirst, pituary gland

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Pituitary gland

- master gland of the endocrine/hormone system

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Limbic system (telencephalon)

- in brainstem invovling the 4 F's (fleeing, feeding, fighting, fornicatin)

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Hippocampus (telencephalon)

- memory, transferring short-term memory into LTM
- new neurons can form in the hippocampus

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Amygdala (telencephalon)

- control emotional reactions e.g. fear and anger

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Cingulate gyrus (telencephalon)

- links areas in the brain dealing with emotion and decisions

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Cerebral cortex

- outer half-inch of cerebral hemisphere
- senosry and IQ functions split into 2 lobes
- 90% neocortex
- 10% less than 6 layers and more primitive

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Frontal lobe

- control speech, reasoning, problem solving
- houses Broca's area of speech

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Occipital lobe

- vision

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Parietal lobe

- somatosensory system

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Temporal lobe

- hearing
- houses Wenike's area related to speech

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Gyri

- bumps

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Sulci

- fissures

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Meninges

- tough connective tissues that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord

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Blood brain barrier

- protects brain by making it difficult for toxic substances to pass from blood into brain
- cells that make up blood vessels in brain are very tightly packed

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Ventricles

- chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid that insulate brain from shock

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Superior colliculus

- controls visual reflexes

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Inferior colliculus

- controls auditory reflexes

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Basal ganglia

- large voluntary muscle movements
- dengeneration related to motor dysfuction

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Cortical association areas

- cortex that correspond to certain functions
- larger the area the more sensitive and highly accessed is the corresponding function

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Apraxia

- inability to organize movement

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Agnosia

- difficulty processing sensory information

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Aphasia

- language disorder

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Alexia

- inability to read

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Agraphia

- inability to write

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Broca's aphasia

- damage to Broca's area in left frontal lobe
- understand speech but difficulty speakng

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Wernicke's aphasia

- damage to Wernicke's area of brain located in the left temporal lobe
- can speak but no longer understand how to correctly choose words
- speech is fluent but nonsensical

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Hyperphagia

- overeating with no satiation of hunger
- damange to the ventromedial region of the hypothalamus

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Sham rage

- incredibly rage easily provoked when the cerebral cortex is removed

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Stereotaxic instruments

- used to implant electrodes

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

- measures oxygen flow in brain

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Positron emission tomography (PET)

- scans glucose metabolism

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Blooming and pruning

- process children go through where neural pathways are connected and then some die out

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Neuron

- basic unit of the nervous system

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Dendrites

- receive impulses

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Cell body AKA

- soma
- largest central portion and makes up gray matter
- has a nucleas that directs the neuron's activity

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Axon hillock

- where the soma and axon connect

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Axon

- transmits impulses of the neuron
- bundle of these nerve fibers aka white matter
- wider the the nerve fiber the faster the conduction of axon impulses

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Myelin sheath

- fatty insulated sheath on axons that allow faster conduction of axon impulses

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Nodes of Ranvier

- dips between the beads of myelin sheath

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Terminal buttons

- jumping points for impulses

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Synaptic vessels

- found inside terminal butttons and hold transmitters

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Cell membrane

- covers the whole neuron and has selective permeability
- sometimes lets positive ions through

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Synpase or synpatic gap

- space between 2 neurons where they communicate

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Presynaptic cell

- end of one neuron (terminal buttons)

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Postsynaptic cell

- beginning of another neuron (dendrites)

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Glial cells (2 types)

- other types of cells in nervous system
1) oligodendrocytes
2) schwann cells

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Oligodendrocytes

- provide myelin in CNS

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Schwann cells

- provide myelin in the PNS

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Resting potential

- inactivated state of neuron
- negatively charged and positive ions cannot get in

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Presynaptic cell fires and:

- releases NT from its terminal button as a messenger

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Postsynaptic potentials and postsynaptic cell detect presence of NT and:

- cause ion channels to open up

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Postsynaptic potential (2 forms):

- changes in nerve cell's charge as the result of stimulation
1) EPSP
2) IPSP

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Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)

- positive charges from outside are allowed in (depolarization) and increase chance that cell will fire

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Depolarization

- increases the chance that cell will fire

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Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

- few positive charges in cell body are let out (hyperpolarizaton) and body is even more negative than outside
- decrease chance that cell will fire

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Action potential or nerve impulses

- when cell stimulated with enough positive ions and fires

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The all or none law

- refers to fact that once minimum threshold for stimulation is met = nerve impulses sent
- intensity always the same
- indicates how many signals are fired not how strong the stimulus is

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How does the action potential travel down the axon:

- frequently 'jumping' from one node of Ranvier to the next bc on increased insulation

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Saltatory conduction

- jumping from one node to next

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Absolute refractory period

- time after a neuron fires in which it cannot respond to stimulation

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Relative refractory period

- time after absolute refractory where neuron can fire but it needs a stronger stimulus

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What happens after NT is done? (2 things)

1) reuptake where NT is reabsorbed into synpatic cell
2) deactivated by enzymes
- process keeps messenger from continually stimulating neurons

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Acteylcholine

- released at neuromuscular junction to cause contraction of skeletal muscles
- invovled in parasympathetic nervous system

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Endorphines

- pleasure and analgesia
- exogenous endorphines are highly addictive

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Monoanimes (2 classes)

- comprise of 2 classes of NT
1) Indolamnes
2) Catecholamines

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Indolamines

- include serotonin

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Catecholamines

- include dopamine - related to reward and addiction
- too little = motor degenerative disease
- too much = schizophrenia

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Amno acids

- present in fast acting directed synapses

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Glutamate

- most abundent excitatory NT

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

- most abundent inhibitory NT

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Neuromodulators

- NT that cause long term changes in postsynaptic cell

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Agonists

- NT increases effect of Nt e.g. SSRIS increase serotonin activity

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Antagonists

- decrease the effect of specific NT
e.g. botox an acetylcholine that decrease muscle activity

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Pituitary gland

- controlled by hypothalamus and regulates hormones in body
- characterized as either organizational or activational

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H-Y antigen (organizational)

- presence during development causes fetus to be a male

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Androgens (testosterone; organizational)

- increase in males causes genital maturity and secondary sex characterisitcs

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Estrogen (organizational)

- increase females genital maturity and secondary sex characteristics

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Mearche (organizational)

- onset of menstrual cycle

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Lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulting hormone (FSH) (activational)

- hormones that changes during menstrual cycle
- regulate development of ovum and trigger ovulation in females
- promotes sperm development and testosterone
- also estradiol, progesterone

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Oxytocin

- released in pituitary and facilitate birth and breast feeding
- involved in pair bonding

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Vasopressin

- released in pituitary
- reglates water levels in body and blood pressure

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Thyriod stimulating hormone

- released from the pituitary
- activates the thyroid

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

- released from the pituitary
- stress hormone that increases production of androgens and cortisol

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Electroencephalograms (EEG)

- measure brain wave patterns and sleep/wake states

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Sleep has 2 phases:

1) Non REM: takes about 1/2 hour to pass through 4 stages
2) REM

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Stage 0 (non rem)

- prelude to sleep
- low amplitude and fast frequency alpha waves appear in brain
- relaxed and drowsy

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Alpha waves in stage 0 (low amplitude, fast frequency) AKA

- neural synchrony

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Stage 1 (non rem)

- eyes roll
- alpha waves turn into irregular theta waves (low amplitude and slow frequency)
- loses responsiveness and has fleeting thoughts

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Stage 2 (non rem)

- AKA theta wave stage
- fast burst of brain activity called sleep spindles
- muscle tensions, heart decline, respiration and temperature decline

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Sleep Spindles

- fast frequency bursts of brain activity

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Stage 3 (non rem)

- takes 30 mins after falling asleep
- few sleep spindles
- high amplitude and low frequency delta waves

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Stage 4 (non rem)

- delta waves occur more than 50% of time
- deepest level of sleep during delta waves
- heart rate, temperature, blood flow rduced and GH is secreted
- if woken up, person is groggy and confused

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REM

- 20% is REM; interspersed with non REM every 30-40 mins
- dreams are experienced
- same low amplitude, fast frequency beta waves of waking state (neural desynchrony) but mscles decrease to paralysis and sudeen twiches
- last from 15 mins to 1 hour

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Beta waves in REM sleep (low amplitude, high frequency) AKA

- neural desynchrony

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REM AKA

- paradoxial sleep

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Rebound effect

- when people are deprived of REM sleep
- compensat the next night by spending more time in REM sleep

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How many cycles of sleep to people complete? How long is each cycle? What stages take place when?

- 4 - 6 each night
- each cycle last 90 mins
- stage 3 and 4 early in night then stage 2 and REM later on in night

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Infant vs. Eldery sleep hours

- 16 vs. 6

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REM sleep comprises of how much sleep in birth and the decreases to:

- comprises of half of total sleep then decreases to 25%