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Flashcards in Physiology of aging Deck (27):
1

The term for programmed cell death is:

A. Senescence
B. Apoptosis
C. Cell Cycle
D. Life Expectancy

B

2

Senescence is

A. That phase in the life span which is associated with an increasing risk of dementia

B. Progressive, universal and intrinsic only among mammals

C. Understood to be the direct cause of death for all living beings

D. The progressive accumulation of changes that lead to aging

D

3

The following disease states are usually limited to the elderly except

A. Osteoarthritis
B. Cirrhosis
C. Prostatic adenocarcinoma
D. Temporal arteritis
E. Osteoporosis

B

4

Which of the following best illustrates the immune Theory of aging

A. Osteoporosis in the elderly
B. Cerebrovascular disease
C. Increased risk for pneumonia
D. Wear and tear of teeth
E. Senile dementia

C

5

The following mechanisms and examples pertains to the stochastic mechanism of aging

A. Increased chromosomal abnormalities with age due to DNA breaks
B. Decrease in the number of T - Cell activity
C. Increased susceptibility to certain bacterial infections
D. The onset of menopause at 45-55 years of age in women
C. Rate of living theory
D. Immune Theory
E. Error Catastrophe Theory

E

6

The specific example of some animals where overproduction in sex hormones produces an initial advantage of improved reproduction countered later in life with increased risk of prostate cancer illustrate which particular theory of aging?

A. Somatic mutation theory
B. Free radical theory
C. Rate of living theory
D. Immune Theory
E. Antagonistic Pleitropy theory

E

7

The finding that energy restriction without malnutrition in rats serves to prolong life is an illustration of which theory of aging

A. Somatic mutation theory
B. Free radical theory
C. Rate of living theory
D. Immune theory
E. Error catastrophe theory

C

8

The following are natural age related changes in the vascular system except

A. Calcification of the heart valves
B. Thickening of the arteries
C. Decreased elasticity of the blood vessels
D. Myocardial infarction
E. Increase cardiac muscle mass

D

9

The following changes occur in the skeletal system as we age, except

A. Starting at age 55 calcium is lost and bone density decreases
B. There is thinning of the vertebrae resulting in decrease in height
C. The vertebrae calcify making bending difficult
D. There is wearing away of the joints’ cartilage
E. None of the above.

A

10

Which of the following examples show the effect of aging on episodic memory?

A. They can usually recall the “good old days”
B. They can’t remember where they put their keys
C. They can’t remember the names of the children
D. They are able to recall the lyrics of old songs
E. It’s hard for them to memorize phone numbers

B

11

The following changes in higher cortical function occurs in the elderly except

A. Decline in the ability to learn a new information
B. Decline in reaction time
C. Less efficiency in performing complex tasks
D. Decreased performance on time tasks
E. None of the above.

E

12

Which of the following changes in the optical system explains presbyopia in the elderly

A. Increased opacity of the lens
B. Miotic, poorly reactive pupils
C. Loss of lens elasticity
D. Loss or deterioration of photoreceptors
E. Thickening of the cornea

C

13

The following changes occur in the aging heart except

A. Increased weight
B. Increased size of myocyte
C. Decreased number of myocyte
D. Decreased lumen of cardiac chambers
E. None of the above

D

14

The following statements regarding the decline in muscular strength in aging are true except

A. There is generally a steep decline in muscular strength beginning at age 40

B. Aging skeletal muscle exhibit less specific force, endurance and recovery from fatigue

C. Decrease in muscle strength is caused partly by varying degrees of denervation

D. There is preferential atrophy of fast twitch compared to slow-twitch muscle fibers

A

15

Deteriorating quality of sleep is a frequent complaint in the elderly. The following statements regarding changes in the sleep pattern of the elderly are true except

A. There is an increase in the frequency and duration of wakefulness at night
B. EEG recording showed diminution of deeper, slow-wave sleep
C. There is less frequent shift from one sleep stage to another
D. All are true

C

16

The following are usual age related changes in the cardiovascular system except

A. Atrophy and thinning out of the left ventricle
B. Calcification of the heart valves
C. Loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
D. Decrease in blood flow to the various organs

A

17

The following are changes in the respiratory system that can reduce the efficiency of the respiration and impair the elderly person’s ability to perform physical activities

A. Atrophy of the muscles of the ribcage
B. Lung tissue become less elastic
C. Reduced activity of the cilia
D. All of the above

D

18

The following statements regarding impairment of higher cortical function in the elderly are true, except

A. Intelligence as measured by standard IQ test usually starts to decrease by age 60
B. Semantic and procedural memory is usually preserved
C. The ability to learn new information declines
D. Less efficiency in performing complex task

A

19

Which of the following statements regarding changes in the peripheral nervous system is false

A. Muscle fiber exhibit less specific force, endurance and recovery
B. There is less calcium released in response to muscular action potential
C. There is decrease in nerve conduction velocity
D. There is preferential atrophy of the slow-twitching muscle fibers

D

20

Regular physical exercise provides the following advantages to the elderly except

A. Increased aerobic capacity
B. Increased arterial stiffness
C. Increases muscle glycogen stores
D. Increase muscle oxygen utilization
E. Increased cardiac end diastolic volume and ejection fraction

B

21

The following statement regarding blood pressure in the elderly are true except

A. Blood pressure increases steadily beginning at age 20
B. Beyond age 70, arterial pressure plateaus or even decline
C. Environment and lifestyle may have a big effect on blood pressure
D. Impaired baroreceptor response can cause orthostatic hypotension in the elderly
E. None of the above

A

22

Which theory is supported by the death of Pacific salmon shortly after spawning due to adrenal hyperplasia and glucocorticoid toxicity?

A. Somatic Mutation theory
B. Biological clock/pacemaker theory
C. Rate of Living theory
D. Metabolic theory

B

23

The following introduce somatic mutation via oxygen free radicals except:

A. Ionizing radiation
B. Smoke
C. Infrared light
D. Air pollution

D

24

The following are changes in the respiratory system which impair the elderly person’s physical activity:

A. Atrophy of the respiratory muscles
B. Increased work of breathing
C. Airways and lung tissue become less elastic with reduced ciliary activity
D. AOTA

D

25

Which of the following statements about the musculature of an older person is false:

A. Generalized atrophying of all muscles
B. Smooth muscle is spared from age related atrophy.
C. Physical exercise tempers the extent of the changes

B

26

Age-associated physiologic change

A. Hypertension
B. Osteoporosis
C. Osteoarthritis
D. Presbyopia

D

27

A theory that states that overproduction of sex hormones may improve the organism’s reproductive efforts but may have deleterious effects later in life is

A. Genetic theory
B. Error catastrophe theory
C. Free radical theory
D. Antagonistic pleitropy theory

D