Physiology of the Peripheral Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology of the Peripheral Nervous System Deck (26):
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Divisions of the nervous system

Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), peripheral nervous system: somatic motor, autonomic (ANS)
-parasympathetic, sympathetic

1

Autonomic nervous system functions

Regulate the heart, regulate the secretory glands (salivary, gastric, sweat, bronchial), regulate smooth muscles (bronchi, blood vessels, urogenital system, GI tract)

2

Parasympathetic nervous system

Slow the heart rate, increase gastric secretions, empty the bladder, empty the bowel, focus the eye for near vision, constrict the pupil, contract bronchial smooth muscle

3

PNS drugs

Digestion of food, excretion of waste, control of vision, conservation of energy

4

Sympathetic nervous system functions

Regulate cardiovascular system, regulate body temperature, implement "fight or flight" reaction

5

Homeostatic objectives of SNS

Maintain blood flow to the brain, redistribute blood flow during exercise, compensate for loss of blood

6

SNS body temperature regulations

Regulate blood flow to the skin, promote secretin of sweat glands, induce piloerection

7

Fight or flight response

Increase heart rate and blood pressure, shunting blood away from the skin/viscera and into skeletal muscle, dilate the bronchi to improve oxygenation, dilate the pupils, mobilize stored energy

8

Sympathomimetic drugs

Primarily used for effects on heart and blood vessels, lungs

9

Basic mechanisms by which ANS regulates physiologic processes

Patterns of innervation and control, feedback regulation, autonomic tone

10

Patterns of innervation and control

Dual innervation opposed: HR, dual innervation complementary: erection and ejaculation, only one division: blood vessels

11

Feedback regulation

Baroreceptor reflex and blood pressure, feedback loop, sensor/effector neurons

12

Autonomic tone

Only one division provides basal control to organ
-Most organs: predominant tone is PNS
-Vascular system: predominant tone is SNS

13

Neurotransmitters of the PNS

Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine

14

Acetylcoline

Employed at most junctions of the PNS

15

Norepinephrine

Released by most postganglionic neurons

16

Epinephrine

Released by adrenal medulla

17

Receptors of the PNS

Cholinergic receptors (mediated by acetylcholine), adrenergic receptors (mediated by epinephrine and norepinephrine)

18

Subtypes of cholinergic receptors

Nicotinic(N), nicotinic(M), muscarinic

19

Subtypes of adrenergic receptors

Alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, dopamine

20

Apha1

Vasoconstriction, ejaculation, contraction of bladder, neck, and prostate

21

Alpha2

Located in presynaptic junction, minimal clinical significance

22

Beta1

Heart: increases heart race, force of contraction, velocity of conduction in AV node
Kidney: renin release

23

Beta2

Bronchial dilation, relaxation of uterine muscle, vasodilation, glycogenolysis

24

Dopamine

Dilates renal blood vessels

25

Receptor specificity of adrenergic nuerotransmitters

Epinephrine: all alpha and beta, NOT dopamine
Norepinephrine: all alpha and beta1, NOT beta2 or dopamine
Dopamine: alpha1, beta1, dopamine