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Flashcards in Physiology- Terms Deck (34):
1

Oscillators (definition and location)

Related to episodic hormone secretion
Hypothalamus

2

Circhoral

Most prominent episode of release
Frequency about 1 hour

3

Ultradian

Episode of release >1hr <24hrs

4

Circadian

Periodicity if about 24 hours

5

Diurnal

Increase in secretion happens in a defined period of the day

6

Retinohypothalamic tract (define, type of regulation)

Connects SCN with retinal cells

7

SCN (def, type of regulation)

Intrinsic circadian clock imposes circadian rhythms

Chronotropic control

8

4 positive feedback mechanism

Oxytocin and labor
Ovulation
Milk letdown
Blood clotting

9

Magnocellar neuron

Neurons that produce hormones (oxytocin, ADH) in hypothalamus

10

Set of blood vessels that connect hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

Hypothalamohypophyseal portal vessels

11

Parvocellular neuron

Neurons in hypothalamus that produce hormones targeting anterior pituitary

12

Site of secretion of parvocellular neurons of hypothalamus

Median eminence and tuber cinerum

13

POMC

Corticotropin-lipotropin hormone family of ant. Pituitary

-ACTH
-b-lipoprotein
-b-endorphin
-a-MSH

14

Pendrin

Sodium independent iodide/chloride transporter

Iodide from apical membrane into thyroid follicle lumen

15

NIS

Sodium iodide symporter (1I in 2Na in)

Iodine enters thyroid gland throught BL membrane

16

TBG

Thyroxine binding globulin (T3 T4 major carrier)

17

TTR

Transthyretin (T3 T4 specific carrier to CNS via CSF)

18

Fate of 400ug iodine intake through diet

400 ingested
- 80 absorbed (20%)
- 320 excreted (80%)
Of the 80 absorbed
- 60 become hormones (75%)
- 20 will be excreted as free iodide (25%)
Of the 60 metabolized hormones
- 10 through stool (1/6)
- 50 through urine (5/6)

400ug intake 390 will be excreted through urine

19

Organs unaffected by increase in BMR due to thyroid hormone

Brain, testes, uterus, lymph nodes, spleen, anterior pituitary

20

Hormone that increases hematocrit and stimulates EPO

Thyroid hormone

21

Chromaffin cells

Sympathetic ganglia associated with eural crest derived cells in adrenal medulla

22

PNMT

Phenylethanolamin N-methyl tranferase

Transfers methyl to nor to become epi

23

NPC

Neiman pick C proteins
Transport Free cholesterol (from CE) out of endolysosome

24

ACAT

Acyl-coa cholesterol acyltransferase

Esterifies Free cholesterol in cytoplasm before storage in lipid droplets

25

HSL (action and regulation)

Hormone sensitive lipase
Continuously turns stored CE into FC (in response to ACTH)

26

CYP11A1

First enzyme in cortisol synth (inner mitochondrial membrane)

27

StAR

Transfers FC from cytoplasm of fasiculata cells into inner mitochondrial membrane for beginning of cortisol sunthesis

28

Transcortin

Major carrier of cortisol 90%

29

11B-HSD2

Enzyme that reversibly inactivates cortison to cortisone in cells with MR (avoid inappropriate mineralocorticoid action of cortisol)

30

11B-HSD1

Reversibly activates cortisone to cortisol in cells with GR (correct response)

skeletal muscle, adipose, CNS, and skin

31

Cyclophilin and HSP

Molecular chaperones of GR in the cytoplasm

32

3b-HSD

Catalyzes prenenolone to progesterone in zona fasciculata

33

17b-HSD

Activating or deactivating sex hormonea

34

Cell that secretes calcitonin and gland

Parafollicular cells (c cells) of thyroid