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Flashcards in Physiology Test 1 Deck (118):
1

Proximal

Closer to the point of reference

2

Distal

Farther from point of reference

3

Ventral

towards the belly

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Dorsal

towards the backbone

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Anterior/Cranial

Front of the body

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Posterior/Caudal

Back of the body

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Gross Anatomy

bones, muscles, organs, vascular system, etc.

8

Microanatomy or Histology

microscopic anatomy

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Comparative anatomy

comparison of structure between species

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Embryology

study of anatomy during final development

11

Homeostasis

The tendency of a living organism to maintain physiological stability, both between its own body systems and between itself and the environment

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Claude Bernard

First to describe many body homeostasis controls

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Walter B. Cannon

Described flight or fight response

14

Water

Most abundant molecule in the body (65%)
- Functions as solvent and transport medium
- 2 ways to get: drink and metabolize

15

Intracellular

inside the cell
- cytosol

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Extracellular

outside the cell
- plasma

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Intercellular

between cells
- interstitial

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4 Main Classes of Inorganic Molecules

Proteins
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids

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Proteins

most abundant organic components of an animal's body
- account for 20% of animals body weight

20

Amino Acids

Carbon atom backbone
- hydrogen atom (-H)
- amino group (-NH2)
- carboxylic acid group (-COOH)
- variable R group or side chain wight differs from one to another

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Animo Acid Sequence

determines the shape and the specific shape determines biological activity

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2 Types of Proteins

Globular
Fibrous

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Globular Proteins

water soluble
compact, rounded shape = ex. hemoglobin

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Fibrous Proteins

water insoluble
long, linear, forms strong supporting framework in cells and tissues = ex. collagen

25

Structural Proteins

Provide strength, organization, and support for cells, tissues, and organs
- collagen
- elastin
- keratin

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Reactive Proteins

Metabolic regulation
- enzymes = accelerate reactions
- hormones = cell to cell communication

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Receptors

On/off switches

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Contractile Proteins

Movement
- actin
- myosin
- others...

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Histones

Associated with DNA

30

Mucoproteins

proteins binded with water

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Glycoproteins

proteins with sugars

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Lipoproteins

proteins with lipid

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Lipids

makes up 12% of body weight
form essential components of all cells
function as energy reserves
helps maintain body temperature

34

Types of Lipids

Fats (Cholesterols)
Oils
Waxes
Hormones
Fat Soluble Vitamins

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Carbohydrates

Incudes sugars and starches

36

Types of Carbohydrates

monosaccharaides
disaccharides
polysaccharides

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Nucleic Acids

Function in the storage and processing of genetic information inside living cells

38

Types of Nucleic Acids

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

39

Inorganic Materials

Minerals
Salts
- crystalloids
- colloids

40

Cell Membrane

contains cytoplasm, nucleus, and organelles
selectively permeable

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Nuclear Membrane

Surrounds nucleus

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Golgi Apparatus

functions in storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products such as CHO's, glycoproteins, and lysosomes

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Ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis

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Rough ER

has ribosomes and makes and packages proteins

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Smooth ER

Lacks ribosomes but makes and packages lipids and CHO's

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Mytochondria

"power house"

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Lysosomes

Vesicles containing powerful digestive enzymes; function in removal of damaged organelles or of pathogens

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Cytoskeleton

internal framework of cell and gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility, composed of microtubules and microfiliments. Provides cell strength and allows movement of cellular structures and materials

49

Endocytosis

Where extracellular material is ingested by a cell; the cell membrane invaginates (folds inward) forming a pocket (vesicle) around a cluster or molecules or a food particle or even an entire cell.

50

Phagocytosis

"cell eating" of solid objects

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Pinocytosis

"cell drinking" of extracellular matter forming a vesicle inside the cell

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Exocytosis

reverse of endocytosis; the cell secretes a vesicle pocket of material; the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and the contents spill out into the extracellular space

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Mitosis

Somatic (body) cells
Results in 2 identical daughter cells each having genetic composition as the parent cell

54

Meiosis

Gamete (sex) cells
Diploid (2n) parent cell divides twice, giving rise to 4 haploid cells. Have half the number of chromosomes as the rest of the cells of the body.

55

Tissues of the Body

Epithelial
Connective
Muscles
Nervous
Blood and Lymph

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Nucleotide

Deoxyribose
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous groups

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Nitrogenous Groups

Cytosine
Thymine
Adenine
Guanine

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Phosphate group

Where nucleotide groups bond together

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Double Helix

Formed from mirror image DNA strands

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Transcription

Ribose
Phosphate groups
Nitrogenous groups

mRNA coding sequences can be from 21 to >30,000 base units in length
Every 3 nitrate groups code for a specific amino acid
Once everything is done, the mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to ribosomes where they are translated into protein at the surface of the ribosome

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Translation

Requires transfer RNA
Amino acids are coded in triples on the mRNA and having a mirror image tRNA sequence with its attach amino acid

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After Translation

Everything is in its primary form. Won't be functional until it reaches its tertiary shape

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Nanogram

parts per million (ppm)

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Picogram

parts per billion (ppb)

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Hormones

- Chemical produced by specific gland
- Secreted into the body or other fluid spaces (blood stream/lymph system)
- Acts on distant tissue or cells called target cells (cells that have receptors)

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Epicrine

Direct cell to cell contact through gap junctions
- similar to a subway system

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Paracrine

Cell to cell via interstitial fluid
- cells do NOT have to be in direct contact

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Endocrine

via bloodstream

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Neurocrine

Secreted by neurons, may affect other neurons, cells in contact with neuron or enter bloodstream and be transported
- made by nervous system

70

Exocrine

Hormone secreted to exterior of body
- lumen of digestive system
- pheromones

71

Amines

Derived from amino acid tyrosine (simplest type)

72

Peptides

made from amino acids
- peptides (small groups of amino acids). between 7 and 20 amino acids, usually quick action
- polypeptides (multiple groups of amino acids)
- True proteins (more than 10,000 units. Cannot go through the cell membrane

73

Steroids

Made from cholesterol
- Adrenal Cortex: glycocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
- Gonadal or placental or adrenal: progestins, estrogens, androgens
- prostaglandins or prostanoids: made from arachidonic acid (a fatty acid)

74

Actions of Hormones

- change morphology
- cause cell division and differentiation
- increase protein synthesis
- regulate enzymes
- stimulate muscle contraction
- control exocrine secretion
- controle endocrine secretions
- regulate ion movement across membranes
- controle permeability to water
- control or change behavior

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Receptor

Protein that binds hormone and causes a biological response

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Plasma Membrane

Receptors that require second messengers to cause response of target cells
These second messengers activate or deactivate enzymes

77

Nuclear Receptors

Bind to DNA and turn on or off gene transcription (coding for new proteins)

78

tropin or tropic

Meaning stimulating

79

Regulate Anterior Pitutiary

TRH or TRH
CRF or CRH
GnRH
PIF
GHRH
GHIH

80

Pituitary Gland

Double lobed gland located just below hypothalamus
Posterior and hypothalamus are connected by nerves
Anterior and hypothalamus are connected by blood vessels (portal vessels)

81

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

Growth hormone
ACTH
TSH
Gonadrotropic hormones

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Growth Hormone

- Stimulates growth
- Stimulates liver to produce somatomedins
- metabolic effects
- Protein synthesis
- fatty acid metabolism
- decrease glucose uptake

83

ACTH

- stimulates adrenal cortex
- metabolic effects similar to GH

84

TSH

Stimulates release of thyroid hormone

85

Gonadotropic Hormones

FSH
LH
Prolactin
Beta-Lipoprotein Hormone

86

FSH

female - oogenesis
male - spermatogenesis

87

LH

female - ovulation and formation of functional CL
male - testosterone production

88

Prolactin

starts milk synthesis, released by suckling

89

Beta-Lipoprotein Hormone

- secreted by same cells that secrete ACTH
- unknown function

90

Posterior Pituitary Hormones

Antidiuretic Hormone
Oxytocin

91

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

increased water retention

92

Oxytocin

stimulates smooth muscle

93

Functions of Thyroid Hormones

- increase metabolic activity
- T3 and T4 regulate basal metabolic rate (BMR)
- increased BMR generates heat through sodium-potassium pumps
- heart rate is increased because thyroid hormones increases the heart's receptors for nerepinephrine and epinephrine

94

Calcium

most regulated compound in the body

95

PTH

Stimulates formation of active form of Vitamin D

96

PTH Effects

- stimulates production of active vitamin D
- increases Ca reabsorption at the kidney
- increases Ca removal from bone

97

Calcitonin Effects

- decreases removal from Ca from bone
- increases Ca loss through kidneys

98

Adrenal Gland

- located immediately cranial to the kidneys
- divided into 2 parts: cortex and medulla

99

Hormones of Adrenal Cortex

- steroid hormones made from cholesterol
- aldosterone

100

Aldosterone

regulates Na levels in the body by increasing Na retention in Kidney

101

Functions of Glucocorticoids

- cortisol most important
- involved in stress response
- increases blood glucose levels

102

Functions of Mineralocortiocoids

- regulates Na levels in body by increasing Na retention in kidneys
- promoting membrane transport of ions

103

Adrenal Medulla

Medulla is an extension of the Sympathetic Nervous System
-Medulla produces catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine
- These hormones are also involved in the stress response (fight or flight)

104

Kidney Hormones

- erythropoietin: increases red blood cell number
- renin: enzyme which activates Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin
- Angiotensin stimulates secretion of Aldosterone from Adrenal Cortex

105

Hormones of Pancreas

Insulin (produced by beta cells)
Glucagon (produced by alpha cells)
Somatostatin (regulator)
Pancreatic Polypeptide

106

Prostaglandins

- Found in most tissue
- Synthesized from Arachidonic Acid

107

Gastrin

- Acts as a buffer to protect enzymes from pH of the gut
- increases pancreatic enzyme and bicarbonate secretion
- promotes movement of of food through the intestines (doesn't need to get as much nutrients out of food. mainly during times of good nutrition)

108

Secretin

- increases pancreatic enzyme and bicarbonate secretion
- inhibits movement of food through intestines (get as many nutrients as possible, times of starvation)

109

CCK

- increases pancreatic enzyme and bicarbonate secretion
- Promotes movement of food through intestines

110

VIP

inhibits gastric acid secretion, stimulates bile flow

111

Water

- Comprises about 60% of body weight
- Universal solvent for most of body chemicals

112

Cell membrane

- Slight negative charge
- Water can move freely across, but some other particles have problems due to their size and the permeability
- Diffusion media for cells
- is a heat sink (materials moving into will raise temperature minimally
- provides lubricant for movement

113

Diffusion

- simple movement of particles in response to brownian motion
- if a gradient exists, particles will move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
- specific for each type of particle

114

Equilibrium

- Equal distribution of particles in a given area
- particles continue to move
- IN an aqueous solution, particle charge and size have little effect

115

Barriers to Diffusion

Cell membrane
- hydrophobic (membrane)
- hydrophilic (pores in membrane)

116

Insensible Water Loss

Uncontrolled water loss
- evaporation (sweat, exhaled breath)

117

Sensible Water Loss

Controlled water loss
- Urine
- Fecal
- Usually under tight control

118

Water Requirements

- based on caloric expenditure
- main body reserve is the extracellular fluid
- Larger animal of the same specie has a larger reserve
- young animals will be first to be effected by environmental stress or disease