Physiology Test 2 Flashcards Preview

Physiology > Physiology Test 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology Test 2 Deck (54):
1

CN 1

Olfactory
Function: sense of smell

2

CN 2

Optic
Function: vision

3

CN 3

Oculomotor
Function:
- Motor: eyeball movement, constriction of pupil, and accommodation of lens for near vision
- Sensory: muscle sense

4

CN 4

Trochlear
Function:
- Motor: eyeball movement
- Sensory: muscle sense

5

CN 5

Trigeminal
Function:
- Motor: Chewing
- Sensory: sensations of touch, pain, and temperature from areas that are innervated

6

CN 6

Abducent

7

CN 7

Facial
Function:
- Motor: facial expression and secretion of saliva and tears
- Sensory: muscle sense and taste

8

CN 8

Vestibulocochlear
Function:
- Cochlear branch = hearing
- Vestibular branch = equilibrium

9

CN 9

Glossopharynegeal
Function:
- Motor: secretion of saliva
- Sensory: taste, regulation of blood pressure, and muscle sense

10

CN 10

Vagus
Function:
- Motor: smooth muscle contraction and relaxation and secretion of digestive fluids
- Sensory: sensations from visceral organs and muscle sense
Largest nerve

11

CN 11

Accessory
Function:
- Motor: cranial portion mediates swallowing, spinal portion mediates movement of the head
- Sensory: muscle sense

12

CN 12

Hypoglossal
Function:
- Motor: movement of tongue during speech and swallowing
- Sensory: muscle sense

13

Hypothermia

Pathologic reduction in core body temperature (70-80 degrees F)
- Prolonged exposure to cold air temperature
- exposure to low water temperature
- during anesthesia

14

Hyperthermia

Pathologic elevation in core body temperature
- fever
- heat stroke and impaired evaporation
- also associated with times of extreme fluid loss

15

Resting Membrane Potential

- This is the electrical voltage difference across the membrane of neurons.
- Measured in millivolts ( -70 mV)

16

Depolarization

decrease and eventually the reversal of the membrane potential

17

Repolarization

Restoration of the resting membrane potential

18

Action Potential

sequence of rapidly occurring events that decrease and eventually reverse the membrane potential and then restore the resting membrane potential. This impulse travels along the membrane along the neuron's cell membrane

19

Refractory Period

This is the time during which a cell cannot generate another action potential

20

Continuous Conduction

Step-by-step depolarization of adjacent areas of the membrane. Only occurs in unmyelinated axons

21

Saltatory Conduction

This is the conduction in myelinated axons.

22

Electrical Synapses

- Ion current spread directly from one cell to another via gap junctions
- found in visceral smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and developing embryos
- faster than chemical synapses
- can synchronize the activity of a group of neurons of muscles
- allows two-way transmission of impulses, unlike chemical synapses

23

Chemical Synapses

The presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons are separated by the synaptic cleft filled with extracellular fluid
- sped up using calcium

24

Acetylcholine (ACh)

Can be either an excitatory or inhibitory. Also found in CNS.

25

Autonomic Nervous System

Regulates the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and some glands
Moster part of the ANS is divided into the Sympathetic (speeds things up) and Parasympathetic (slows things down) divisions

26

Somatic Nervous System

- includes both sensory and motor neurons
- sensory neurons convey information from special senses via proprioceptors and general somatic receptors
- motor neurons of the SNS innervate the skeletal muscles and produce conscious voluntary movements

27

Cerebrospinal Fluid

A clear fluid produced by the Choroid Plexuses (a capillary network that extends into the ventricles).
Surrounds brain and spinal cord to act as a shock-absorber

28

Meninges

Coverings of the brain and spinal cord

29

Dura Matter

outer covering of the brain and spinal cord

30

Arachnoid

middle layer of the meninges
where blood supply comes in

31

Pia Matter

inner layer of the meninges that adheres to the brain and spinal cord

32

Peripheral Nervous System

Part of the nervous system that lies outside of the CNS

33

Cranial Nerves

First 2 originate outside the brian. Other ten nerves originate from the brain stem and all exit the skull through the for mania of the skull

34

Spinal Nerves

Nerves that communicate between spinal cord and most of the body

35

Dorsal Root

Contains sensory nerve fiber and carries information from the periphery to the spinal cord

36

Dorsal Root Ganglion

A swelling of the dorsal root that contains the cell bodies of the sensory neurons

37

Ventral Root

Contains the motor neuron axons that carry impulses from the spinal cord to the periphery

38

Reflex Arc

most basic nerve pathway in the body that connects a receptor and effector

39

Receptors

Distal end of the sensory neurons that respond to a stimulation

40

Effector

Part of the body that responds to the impulse

41

Cervical Plexus

Network of nerve fibers formed by the ventral rami of the first four cervical nerves

42

Phrenic Nerve

Arises from the cervical plexus and supplies the motor nerves to the diaphragm

43

Brachial Plexus

Ventral rami of the spinal nerves C5-C8 and T1

44

Lumbar Plexus

Ventral rami of the spinal nerves L1-L4

45

Sacral Plexus

The ventral rami of the nerves L4-L5 and S1-S4

46

Accommodation

When the eye is focusing on a near object, the lens will curve more to bend the rays toward the central fovea.
- minimal distance for a young adult is 10 cm (4 in)

47

Emmetropic eye

normal eye with object at 20 feet focused clearly

48

Myopia

Nearsighted

49

Hypermetropia

Farsighted

50

Astigmatisum

Irregularities of the surface of the lens

51

Rods

Black and white vision

52

Cones

Color vision

53

Static Equilibrium

Maintenance of body position (mainly the head) relative to the force of gravity

54

Dynamic Equilibrium

Maintenance of body position (mainly the head) in response to sudden movements such as rotation, acceleration, and deceleration